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percieving person jan 30.docx

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University of Alberta
Erik Faucher

Impressions and Faces • Adults with baby faced (large round eyes like anime, large forehead, and rounder chin) features tend to seen as possessing certain traits ( positive like being warm and gentle/kind (thoughtful acts) and honesty and negative traits like naïve, submissive, easy to dominate, innocent and weak) • Mature features (small eyes, forehead, angular chin, wrinkles, and faces are seen as possessing different traits (stronger, dominant, and competent) • (Looking at this elicits a thought that I need to take care of this person, show tenderness (even animals) • Research suggests the baby face men also activate the region of the brain that is activated by pictures of babies’faced men. Nonverbal Behavior and Emotions • Nonverbal Behavior: Behavior that reveals a person’s feelings without words, through facial expressions, body language ( depressed people), and vocal cues ( the tone of voice) – 22,000 participants from 42 countries… showed that people can pick up the emotion of others (it is universal and evolutionary adaptive) • Video: blind vs. regular people showed exact same facials expression in the Olympics. It seems to suggest that it is innate biological program. Emotions asAdaptations • The anger superiority effect: anger is superior in our perception. (people much more likely to pick anger faces in crowd. Stay focused on that angry faced it is because it is adaptive. You want to be ready if he is pissed.) • The DiseaseAvoidance Hypothesis: The emotion of disgust is a hypothesized to be adaptation that serves as a defense against microbial attacks. We avoid foods that we believe could be contaminated from disease. (Same find of things are found to be disgusting universally like smelly and insect landed/feces/unhygienic hands) • When it comes to disgust, we believe cold be contaminated from disease (even blind people when they smell rotten food=disgust) • When it comes to disgust we error on the side of caution (i.e. her is bottle it is cleanbut then told it had feces a week ago not gone drink it anymore. You just want to be cautious.Apple juice given in pee pan not going to drink it. We want to be cautious and don’t want to go near it) (We even get disgusted by people/chewing mouth open we have many more things to be disgusted of) Distinguishing Truth from Deception • Behavioral indicators related to the body are better then looking at the face. • Study: Nurses watched film clips (pleasant vs. unpleasant) and their reactions were recorded (asked if you washed disgusted video say it was good or if it is good say it was bad trying to see if they are lying). The result showed that Participants were more accurate in their observations when they focused on the body compared to when they focus on the face. • Even the experts have hard time detecting the truth and the lye. Distinguishing Truth from Deception • Apparently the eyes are NOT a good indicator of lying. • Abetter indicator is to listen to the voice (hesitate as you try to imagine thing, then you speed up and the pitch of the voice raises up then) • Video: lye detecting expect: truth is in memory and easy to come up and the lye is in imagery part of the brain and thus hard to come up with. You use more energy required to run more cognitive resources for lying ) Attribution Theories • Agroup of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior. • APersonalAttribution: Attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or effort (I didn’t study enough) • ASituationalAttribution:Attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people or luck (poorly designed test, luck,) • Jones's correspondent inference theory: Predicts that people try to infer from an action whether the act corresponds to an enduring personal trait of the actor. (Is the behavior coming from one’s trait/personality?) • TheAttribution made depends on 3 factors… 1) Person’s degree of choice(going around naked in snowthe person is doing something because of his own will then an idiot or any other internal traits like self-esteem. But if I believe that he does not have a choice like he want to get into fraternity and that’s why then we make an external attribute.) • IV #1 Participants read essay that favored (vs. opposed) Castro (dictator) • IV #2 Essay writer choose position (vs. assigned position) (they manipulated the choice, was he assigned or did he choose to write on this topic) • DV: The “true” attitude of the essay writer ( what did they really believe regarding Castro) • (Multifactorial study and true experiment as everything is being manipulated) • Results: pro Castro ( the bigger bars) and anit ( small variable) and the DV is the rating ( higer is more support for Castro). CHOICE was a big factor whether or notes that they perceived if they like Castro. Freely chosen and thus the biggest bar and pro-castro) 2. The expectedness of the behavior (how much does it break the norm. more atypical will lead to more personal attribution. Expectedness often lead to choice as seen in # 1. If unexpected then was it his choice or not?) 3. The intended effects or consequences of someone’s behavior (more desirable outcomes, then we are uncertain of the true underlying motivation. Why are you going to this university? Blah blah blah many outcome thus we are uncertain as to why he went to this school. If only say I love this university that is the true motivation of that individual) Kelly’s Covariation Theory (or Principle). • Aprinciple of attribution theory that holds that people attribute behavior to factors that is present when a behavior occurs and is absent when it does not occur. • 3 sources of information: • 1) Consensus information (you go to moviesomeone say this movie is awesome. If we thing many people like this film then consensus is high then this leads us to situation attribution because many people like it. It was due to the stimuli. Thus it is not about the guy but about the external factors. Personal attribution is seen when he say bad when everyone say it’s a good movie. ) • 2) Distinctiveness information: he like all Leonardo movies, distinctiveness is very low. If He just like this one then it is distinct) • 3) Consistency information (solidifies information. If he was to watch this movie again in different setting like at home, and he still likes it on DVD then consistency is high otherwise low and we will attribute it to other factors. Perhaps when he saw it in movie, he must be on good date). Low then you make a different attribution. If it is high then you go back to the first two. Attribution Biases • Dual Process Models Models assuming two different modes of cognition, one effortful (t
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