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Class 5 January 15 Psych 275.docx

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University of Alberta
Deanna Singhal

January 15, 2014 Cells of NS. Anatomy of a neuron -Reception -conduction – myelinated neurons can conduct much faster than unmyelinated neurons -transmission Many shapes and sizes Endoplasmic reticulum help produce fats while ribosomes help in the production of proteins The golgi complex helps package “things” i.e. neurotransmitters into vesicles Any given neuron produces two ypes of neurotransmitters small neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin as well as larger neurotransmitters Cell membrane is a lipid bilayer with both signal proteins and channel proteins embedded within it. Channel proteins are the same as ion channels. Ion channels are usually very specific and will only let one specific ion through the channel. Signal protein is a metabotropic protein that can have many different effects on a cell and not simply the opening of a channel. For every one neuron you have about 10 glial cells depending on what area you are looking at. In areas of high myelination you have many more glial cells (because glial cells produce myelin and support other cells in both structure and nutrition of other cells) Four classes of Glial cells -oligodenrocytes – extensions rich in myelin, create myelin sheaths In CNS and only in the CNS. Can produce more than one sheath, do not exist in the PNS. -Schwann cells - each Schwann cell produces a single sheath in the PNS, can guide axonal regeneration. Missing the protein component that is in the oligodendrcytes. -Astrocytes – largest glia, star shaped, many functions. This is the cell that is supposed to be able to communicate with neurons -microglia – involved in response to injury or disease, cleaning up the debris General terminology CNS PNS Myelin providing glia Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells Clusters of cell bodies Nuclei (singular nucleus) Ganglia (singular ganglion) Bundles of axons Tracts Nerves Directions in the Vertebrate NS -Superior/ Inferior – one stru
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