PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Recombinant Dna, Extraversion And Introversion, Zygote

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PSYCHO 104, LECTURE 9: GENES, EVOLUTION & BEHAVIOR
06/02/19)
Every cell in your body (apart from sperm cells and egg cells) has46 chromosomes
They are parcelled up into 23 pairs of chromosomes
Cells have a nuclei which have chromosomes which have genes.
GENES
Genes are one of the few scientific projects that have been solved
HUMAN GENOME PROJECT
o Project complete in 2001.
o All 23 chromosome pairs disassembled into substances A, T, G, C
o Prior to the project, genes were estimated at 100,000. This is actually
25,000.
o This is the same number as a fruit fly.
o Approximately 200 genes may have arisen due to bacteria.
o As a species we share about 99% of genes, the 1% makes us different
Every cell in your body other than sperm and egg cells have 43 chromosomes
o 23 pairs
o Half from biological mother
o Half from biological father
You have both characteristics inherited from your parents that you express
(phenotype) and that you don’t express (genotype)
o Ex. If both your parents are nearsighted since the gene is recessive you
would be nearsighted
o Ex. If one of your parents is normal sighted and the other is nearsighted you
would have normal vision because it is the dominant trait
o The probability of sharing any given gene with one of your biological
grandparents is 25%
o The probability of sharing any given gene with one of your biological parents
is 50%
o DOMINANT GENES: will be expressed with one copy
o RECESSIVE GENES: will only be expressed with both copies
Recombinant DNA procedures essentially splice (re-combine) bits of DNA. Take a
bacterial cell, open up the DNA, extract and insert human gene (e.g., growth
hormone). Reinsert the combined DNA back into the bacterial cell.
Knockout procedures usually involve altering specific genes so they stop
functioning properly. Behaviour can be observed before and after KO.
o Destruction of certain genetic information
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Document Summary

Psycho 104, lecture 9: genes, evolution & behavior. 06/02/19: every cell in your body (apart from sperm cells and egg cells) has46 chromosomes, they are parcelled up into 23 pairs of chromosomes, cells have a nuclei which have chromosomes which have genes. If both your parents are nearsighted since the gene is recessive you would be nearsighted: ex. Take a bacterial cell, open up the dna, extract and insert human gene (e. g. , growth hormone). Reinsert the combined dna back into the bacterial cell: knockout procedures usually involve altering specific genes so they stop functioning properly. Behaviour can be observed before and after ko: destruction of certain genetic information, but cause and effect may be difficult to show since change in one gene might impact operation of others. Identical twins: same zygote splits in half, monozygotic, 100% genetic material, approximately 1/3. Fraternal twins: separate zygotes, dizygotic, 50% genetic material.

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