PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Hypnosis, Toxicodendron Radicans, Theta Wave
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Chapter 6 – Consciousness
Cogito Ergo Sum: An argument provided by Descartes that argued that we could be
certain of the fact that we exist, by virtue of experiencing. However, we can never be
certain that any of the content of our experience is true or accurate.
Automatic Processing: Repetitive tasks or domains where we are highly skilled and we
eventually do them without being aware. Ex: Driving to work, but not really realizing it
and then you’re there.
Visual Neglect: A contrast to blindsight, people with visual neglect see the world fine,
but they neglect certain aspects of it when taking action. Ex: That cute old lady who
couldn’t draw the left side of a daisy.
The Rouge Test: Works by placing a mark on an animal or baby that can only be seen
with the use of a reflective mirror. Once you place the animal in front of the mirror, we
see if it tries to clean itself. If they do, they are capable of self-recognition.
Stages of Sleep: Measured electrical activity of the brain goes through five distinct
stages while we sleep. How much time we spend in each stage of sleep depends on how
long we’ve been sleeping for. Stage 1: Our theta waves increase, stage 2: spindles or
bursts of rapid brain activity, stage 3: Appearance of large Delta waves and stage 4:
Delta waves begin to dominate the EGG (machine that measure waves) patterns.
Circadian Rhythm: Our biological clock.
Theories of Sleep (Physical Restoration): One main theory is that sleep allows our
bodies to go through periods of accelerated tissue repair.
Ryback & Lewis: Test conducted in 1971 where patients were voluntarily bedridden for
6 weeks. People who are sedentary for long periods of time do not require less sleep.
Adey, Bors & Porter: Study conducted to compare the sleep behaviors of quadriplegics
and uninjured adults. The idea was that if sleep was for restoration, people who had less
injuries would sleep less, however it was discovered that both sleep the same amount of
Shapiro: Study to determine what happens to sleep patterns after extreme physical
exertion. They tested this by comparing the sleep behavior of marathon runners before
and after they ran a race. They discovered that following a marathon; the runners spent
more time sleeping.