PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Endel Tulving

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December 1 2014
TL - 11
Passive exposure
Passive exposure to information is typically not enough to remember it.
Shallow processing: Structured encoding
Intermediate processing: Phenomic encoding
Deep processing: Semantic encoding
When we are paying attention to something's descriptive properties
'surface characteristics'
Trying to remember information based solely on surface charectoristics is
very challenging, and not efficient.
When we are paying attention to how knowledge could be used, or how it relates
to other things, we are paying attention to 'deep characteristics'
Knowledge is best stored when trying to study it based on deep characteristics
The more associations you can form between knowledge, the easier all of
the associated bits are to recall. We better remember information if we can
attach it to a larger context.
Craik & Tulving
Participants were given words in different contexts, and asked to
"She cooked the 'chicken'"
"The large eagle swooped down and with it's claws, took the 'chicken'"
Rich contexts results in better retention.
Sometimes it is possible to take surface characteristics and make them deep
characteristics by embedding all of the pieces of knowledge into a greater
whole. "Artificial rich context"
Encoding specificity states that we encode information along with its context.
Retrieval cues should be more effective if they were present during encoding.
More readily remember information in the context where it was learned.
State-dependant memory is the idea that internal states (e.g. emotion, hunger)
also become part of context at time of memory encoding
Distributed practice
Given 8 hours to study for a test, it's more effective to spread it across a
week instead of spending it all the night before.
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