PSYCO104 Lecture Notes - Lecture 20: Episodic Memory, Retrograde Amnesia, Gyrus
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October 27 2014
TL - 11
The Hippocampus helps support the formation of some types of long-term
People with damage to the Hippocampus have troubles encoding new
Specifically, new factual and episodic memories.
One of the effect treatments for epilepsy is to cut the corpus callosum
A particular individual, HM, had his hippocampus damaged during such a
and was unable to learn new memories. However, it was possible for HM
how to perform new tasks by rote. E.g. He was given the task to pick up
two metallic objects, one was electrified and would provide a small
Over the course of several such incidents (month), HM 'learned' not
the one that would shock him.
HM's condition is called Anterograde Amnesia -- the inability to form
long-term episodic or factual memories.
Retrograde amnesia is of the kind that previous memories are lost.
Motor and Somatosensory Corteces.
Near the top of of the brain.
When the Motor Cortex is stimilated with electrodes, the sensations of
limbs being moved results. Very local, move the site of stimilation and
a different limb recieves the virtual sensation.
In the case of amputees, the unused area of the motor cortex will
get 'recruited' for processing other areas of the body. May cause
effects like 'phantom limb'.. brush on forehead is percieved as
affecting their missing limb.
Somatosensory Cortex, when stimilated, causes the feeling of textures
The formation and size of these cortexes can change depending on how