PSYCO 104 Lecture 8: Consciousness

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PSYCH104–Lecture8–Consciousness
Freud’sDreamProtectionTheory:
Freudobservedmanyculturesandtheirthoughtsondreams
oEx.Babyloniansbelievedthatdreamsweresentbythegodstospecific
individuals
oEx.Greeksbuilttemplestosleepandwaitforvisionstobegiventhrough
dreams
oEx.FirstNationsbelievedthatdreamsshowedtheirwishesanddesires
Freud’sideaalignedwiththeFirstNationsandbelievedthatthepurposeof
dreamingistoescapedesireswehavewithinourselves
oDreamsarereimaginingideasandfeelingsthatwehaverepresseddeep
insideofourselves
oDreamsareaguardianunittoprotectourconsciousnessfromthese
unwantedandundesirablerepressedfeelings
Altertherepressedinformationintosomethingelsethatis
manageableforustoexperienceanddoesnotcause
psychologicalharm
Ego:mentalcensorindividualshavethatkeepacheckonourbehaviour,
thoughtsandfeelings
oRelaxedwhensleeping
Dreamspreventbreakdownswhilesleeping
Freudbelievedinmessageswithindreams
o Trainedindividualcangetadetaileddescriptionofthedreamandpickout
piecestoshowwhatitmeansfortherepressedfeelings
▪ Manifestcontent:theincidentyouexperienceinyourdream
● Ex.Aflattire
▪ Latentcontent:whattheincidentrepresentsbasedonrepressed
emotionsandexperiences
● Ex.Symbolforanxietyaboutlossofstatusatone’sjobor
“stuck”atacertainpointinlife 
o Wroteabooktodecipherthemeaningofthesedreams
▪ Psychoanalytictherapistsstudythesemanuscriptsandbase
treatmentsandtherapiesoffofthem
ProblemwithFreud’sDreamProtectionTheory:
● Alwaysrepresssexualandaggressiveimpulses
o Moresexualandaggressivecontentshouldbeseenindreams
▪ Only10%revolvesaroundsexualcontent
o Mostdreamsarestraightforwardexperiencesthatmayseemillogical
▪ 90%ofourdreamsarestraightforward,noambiguity
ActivationSynthesisTheory:
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Supportedwithscientificevidenceforthepurposeofdreamingandismore
widelyacceptedcomparedtoFreud’stheory
oFreud:dreamguardsrepressedfeelings
oActivationSynthesis:dreamsaretheproductofneuralfiringduetothe
shiftingbalanceofneurotransmitters
● Haphazardfirings:signalsthatdon’tmakealotofsense(notcoherentasifyou
werewideawake)
o Dreamsweexperienceareprimarilyourbraintryingtoreinterpretthe
signalsandfirings
▪ Alotofdreamsshouldbeincoherent,randominnature
● Shouldn’tfollowacoherentstoryline
▪ Onlyafewofourdreamshaveastoryline(theoneswe
remember)
● 12–18differentdreamsduringasleep(severalsleep
cycles)
Insomnia:
● Longstandinginsomniadonothaveadefinitetrigger
o Individualswithinsomniagetmoreandmorefrustratedwhentheycan’t
fallasleep
▪ Arousesthemintoanegativeemotionalstatethatcausesmore
issuesthattheycan’tfallasleep
● Themoreanxiousandangryanindividualis,themore
likelytheywon’tbeabletosleep
● TemporaryInsomnia:
o Carriedfromanenvironmentalstressor
▪ Ex.Drinkingastimulantbeforebed
▪ Ex.WatchingTVorusinganelectronicdeviceinbed
● FormsofInsomnia:
o Cannotfallasleepfor30minutesinadarkandquietroominbed
o Can’tsleepforlongdurations(ex.wakingupat4am)
o Individualcansleepbutwakesupinanhourandthentakesawhileto
sleep(fragmentedsleeppattern)
● Behavioralchangestoimproveinsomnia:
o Noclocksintheroom,individualwillbecomeemotionallyarousedatthe
time,getangrythatyoucan’tfallasleep
o Sleepinginacoolroom(corebodytemperatureisslightlylowerthan
normalwhichmakesiteasier)
o Goingtosleepandwakingupatregulartimes
o Avoidingcaffeine,naps,readinginbed,TV,andsurfingtheInternetin
bed
▪ TV,LCDmonitors,andelectronicsinduceawakingepisode
(stimulatethemindbacktoalertness)
o Thebedshouldonlybeusedforsleepingpurposes
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▪ Ex.IfyougetusedtowatchingTVinbed,yourbodydoesn’t
anticipateorknowwhenyouwanttosleep
● Treatment:
o Sleepingpills
▪ Highlyaddictive
▪ Canhelpanindividualgosleepwhentheytakeit,butitcould
causereboundinsomniawhentheystoptakingthepill
● Ex.Iftheystoptakingthepill,theywon’tfeeldrowsyand
thentheywillhaveinsomniaagain
▪ Raresideeffects:peoplestartedtoengageinsleepeating,sleep
drivingandsleepwalking,fewhadcasesofamnesia(didnotknow
whathappenedaftertakingthepill)
o Psychotherapy:seeapsychologistandtalkaboutthestressorsthatare
actingontheindividual
Narcolepsy:
● Individualsexperienceepisodesofsuddensleepiness
o Suddenfeelingofdrowsinessthattheycan’tfight(usuallycanliedownon
thefloororgetintoasittingposition)
▪ Ex.Drivingonthefreewayandhaveanarcolepticepisode,the
individualneedstofindaplacetopulloverbeforefallingasleep
● Causes:
o Strongemotions
▪ Ex.Feelingasuddenburstofemotionsorlaughingheavilyata
jokewillstimulateanarcolepticepisode
▪ Ex.Narcolepticattackscanoccurduringsexualintercourse
becausetheyareextremelyaroused
● Cataplexy
o Losesmuscletoneandcan’tevenholdtheirheadup
o OccursnormallyinhealthypeopleintoREMsleep(sowedon’tmove
aroundduringsleep)
o Narcolepticpeopleusuallyhavecataplexywhentheyareawake
▪ Happensbeforeanarcolepticepisodewhichcouldbeproblematic
anddifficultforindividuals
▪ Individualswhofallasleepduringanarcolepticepisodegodirectly
intoREMsleep
● Ifyouwakethemup,theywillreportvividhallucinations
● Treatment:
o Hormoneorexin:narcolepticpeoplehavefewerbraincellsthatproduce
thishormone
▪ Ex.Monkeyswereabletostayawakewhenresearchersgave
themorexinhormoneseventhoughtheyweresleepdeprived
Stillintestingphases 
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