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Lecture 10

PSYCO105 Lecture 10: Relationship history and theories
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5 Pages
41 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCO105
Professor
Davina Rousell
Lecture
10

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Relationships with parents and peers
- Conflicts with parents aren’t as severe as they are
- Andrew fuliginous studied 1342 female and male American students in grade 6, 8,110,
the students were immigrants, found that conflicts with parents were low
- Most adolescents say if they face a problem, they can confide in one or both parents
- Yet many adolescents feel that for reasons, incliuding right the persevere their
independence, it is acceptable to lie to their parents
- Parent-teen conflict is correlated with other signs of distress, for example those who
reported more conflict with parents also display hiher levels of school misconduct
(skipping school), more antisocial beavhiour (getting into fitstfights), lower self-esteem,
more dru use, and less life satisfaction
- Correlation does not equal causation
- Peer relationships important, spend lot of tiem with their
- Adolesent relationship more intimate, sharing problems
- Peers can strongly influence a teenager’s values and behavior, thereby facilitating the
process of separating from parents and establishing one’s own identity
- For some adolescents, experiences with peers increase the risk of misconduct, such as
skipping school, damaging property, or using drugs
- Peer pressure against misconduct typically has an even stronger effect and closeness to
parents is an added buffer that helps many teenagers resist peer pressure
- Hastings and Grusec found that conflict beteen Canadian teens and their parents were
reduced when the parents accurelty perceieved their teens cognitions and affect
- Despit peer influence, parental influence remains high on political, religious, moral and
career issues
- Also note that not all negative behaviours can be blamed on parent-teen conflict and
psychological problems be blamed on parent-teen conflict
The transition to adulthood
- In some tranditional cutlrues, marriage typically is the key transitional event into
adulthood
- Thorugh socialization, males develop skills that will enable them to protect and provide
for a family of their own and females learn skills needed eventually to care for children
and run household
- Marriage signifies that, in the eyes of the culture, each partner has acquired these skills
and is deemed capable of raising family
Stages versus critical events in adulthood
- Intimacy vs isolation is the major delvoepmental challenge of early adulthood (ages 20
to 40), intimacy si the ability to open one-self to another person and to form close
relationships
- This period of adulthood in which many people form close adult friendships, fall in lve
and marry
- Middle adulthood (ages 40 to 65), bbrings with it the issue of generativity vs stagnation,
through their careers, raising children, or involvement in other activities, people acieve
generativity by doing things for others and making the world a better place
- Late adulthood (ages 65 and older), go through integrity vs despair, review their lives
and evulate their meanings, if major crisis of earlier stages have been successfully
resolved, the person experiences integrity, completeness and fulfillment, if not, then
feel regret and wish they fulfilled their life more
- Another way to view adult social development is through the major life events that
people experience
- Sigmund Freud once defined psychological adjustment as the “ability to love and work”
and many key life events resolve around these two themes
Marriage and family
- Baby boomers were born a few years after the end of world war II and their children
became known as generation X, as figure 12.40 shows, compared with the families that
baby bombers grew up in, members of generation X are more likely to have experienced
parental divorce, had two working aprents, had a smaller number of silbings and yet
maintained a similar level of closeness to their prents
- Successful marriages are characterized by emotional closeness, positive commucation
and problem solving, agreement on basic values and expectations and willingness to
accept and support changes in the partner
- On average, marital satisfaction declines over the first few years after the knot is tied
- They are just a little less happier, not totally unhappy
- Birth of first baby dramatically alters the way couples spend their time
- Marital satisfaction decreases in the year or two after their first child is born
- Compared with husbands, wives are more likely to leave their outside jobs, spend more
time parenting and feel that their spouses are not helping enough
- Disagreements over the division of labour and parenting are a major contributor to the
drop in marital satisfaction
- Cross sectional studies suggestion a U-shaped relation between marital satisfaction and
progression through major life events
- The percentage of coples reporting that they are very satisfied in their marriage is
typicslly highest before or just as the first child is born, drops during child-rearing years,
and increases after all the children have left home
- Contrary to the popular “empty nest” stereotype, most middle aged couples do not
become significantly depressed or suffer a crisis when their children leave home,
- Couples maintain meaningful relatiosnhisp with their children btu have more time to
spend with each other and persue leisure acitivties
- Despite the stresses that accompany marriages and parenthood, marriage couples are
much happier than unmarried and live longer
Cohabitation
- Cohabit live together without being married
- 8.6% are in common law in Canada

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Description
Relationships with parents and peers Conflicts with parents arent as severe as they are Andrew fuliginous studied 1342 female and male American students in grade 6, 8,110, the students were immigrants, found that conflicts with parents were low Most adolescents say if they face a problem, they can confide in one or both parents Yet many adolescents feel that for reasons, incliuding right the persevere their independence, it is acceptable to lie to their parents Parentteen conflict is correlated with other signs of distress, for example those who reported more conflict with parents also display hiher levels of school misconduct (skipping school), more antisocial beavhiour (getting into fitstfights), lower selfesteem, more dru use, and less life satisfaction Correlation does not equal causation Peer relationships important, spend lot of tiem with their Adolesent relationship more intimate, sharing problems Peers can strongly influence a teenagers values and behavior, thereby facilitating the process of separating from parents and establishing ones own identity For some adolescents, experiences with peers increase the risk of misconduct, such as skipping school, damaging property, or using drugs Peer pressure against misconduct typically has an even stronger effect and closeness to parents is an added buffer that helps many teenagers resist peer pressure Hastings and Grusec found that conflict beteen Canadian teens and their parents were reduced when the parents accurelty perceieved their teens cognitions and affect Despit peer influence, parental influence remains high on political, religious, moral and career issues Also note that not all negative behaviours can be blamed on parentteen conflict and psychological problems be blamed on parentteen conflict The transition to adulthood In some tranditional cutlrues, marriage typically is the key transitional event into adulthood Thorugh socialization, males develop skills that will enable them to protect and provide for a family of their own and females learn skills needed eventually to care for children and run household Marriage signifies that, in the eyes of the culture, each partner has acquired these skills and is deemed capable of raising family Stages versus critical events in adulthood Intimacy vs isolation is the major delvoepmental challenge of early adulthood (ages 20 to 40), intimacy si the ability to open oneself to another person and to form close relationships This period of adulthood in which many people form close adult friendships, fall in lve and marry
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