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Lecture

PSYCO105 Lecture Notes - Empiricism, Dogma

by OneClass193563 , Winter 2014
4 Pages
140 Views
Winter 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCO105
Professor
Davina Rousell

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Psychology 105
Lecture 1: Empiricism
Pages 39-48 in textbook
Overview
Empiricism: The science of observation
Measurement: Operational definition and detection
oValidity: Construct and Predictive
oReliability
oPowerful
Samples & Population
oLaw of Large Numbers
Results in descriptive statistics
_______________________________________________________________________
__________________________
Dogmatism: the tendency of people to cling to their assumptions
An assumption about something or someone rather than making an
observation with evidence and facts. (Ex: stop and frisk at the
airports, East Indian or African people and their negative
stereotypes)
Empiricism: when an individual attempts to acquire knowledge by observing
objects or events. Empiricism = Method
Psychologists: ask how millions of neurons constitute the brain and give rise to
thought, feelings, and actions.
Why is it difficult to study people?
Complexity
oNo one individual whose brain works exactly the same as another
Variability
oWe’re all unique
Reactivity
oEmpiricism really focuses on dealing with this
oEx: Front stage and back stage. In public we act a certain way (front
stage), when we are at home we act a little more carefree (backstage). If
you’re in a study you will probably do what you think the researcher
wants you to. React

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Description
Psychology 105 Lecture 1: Empiricism Pages 39­48 in textbook Overview • Empiricism: The science of observation • Measurement: Operational definition and detection o Validity: Construct and Predictive o Reliability  o Powerful • Samples & Population o Law of Large Numbers • Results in descriptive statistics _______________________________________________________________________ __________________________ Dogmatism: the tendency of people to cling to their assumptions  An assumption about something or someone rather than making an  observation with evidence and facts. (Ex: stop and frisk at the  airports, East Indian or African people and their negative  stereotypes) Empiricism: when an individual attempts to acquire knowledge by observing  objects or events. Empiricism = Method Psychologists: ask how millions of neurons constitute the brain and give rise to  thought, feelings, and actions. Why is it difficult to study people?  • Complexity o No one individual whose brain works exactly the same as another • Variability  o We’re all unique • Reactivity  o Empiricism really focuses on dealing with this o Ex: Front stage and back stage. In public we act a certain way (front  stage), when we are at home we act a little more carefree (backstage). If  you’re in a study you will probably do what you think the researcher  wants you to.  React  Measurement: Define and Detect  *Two­step process!  •  First St : Define the property (e.g., happiness) you wish to measure. What is it  that you want to study? In order to do this we have to create an operational  definition; something that is tangible and something we can measure.  o An operational definition describes the property’s concrete condition in  measurable terms (muscle contractions, when we’re happy we smile) •  Second Step : Identify the device (e.g., electromyography EMG) to detect the  concrete conditions/event (happiness). How can I measure it? o Uses device (EMG) to detect the event  Validity  •  Validi : defined as the characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw  accurate inferences from it. Are you measuring what you say you’re going to  measure? • 2 Types of Validity: two ways to validate  o  1. Construct Validity  : The tendency of an operational definition and a  property to have a clear conceptual relation. Property is happiness, there  has to be a clear relationship between the property and the operational  definition (we can’t say happiness is related to hand size) o  2. Predictive Validity : The tendency for an operation definition to be  related to other operational definitions.  Predicting the same thing, there’s  other things that support the operational definition, provin
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