PSYCO105 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Cognitive Therapy, Reinforcement, Milgram Experiment
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• Social Influence: being able to control another individuals behaviour. 3 basic motives that lead
to very vulnerable social influence:
o Hedonic motive, approval motive, accuracy motive.
o Accurate information is adaptive, it can hep us engage in difficult situations in a difficult way,
Hedonic Motive: motivated to experience pleasure and to avoid the experience of pain. Core
element of cognitive therapy, manipulation of reward/ punishment for behaviour can backfire.
o People are malleable; you can get dramatically different behaviours.
o Children allowed to play with coloured marker and some were given an award if they where
good, the next day the individual who gave out the award was not there. The kids who were
given the “good colorer award” tended to now shy away from using their markers again, why?
Because there is no longer a purpose to engage in behaviour since the stimuli is no longer
present to provide the reward.
• Reinforcement: makes a response more likely to occur or simply strengthens a response.
(+) you are adding something to the situation to encourage that behaviour.
(–) you are removing something from their environment to make sure that a behaviour will be
encouraged = won’t be nagged if they clean their room.
o Primary Reinforcers: a stimuli that is naturally reinforcing, often due to it satisfying a
o Secondary Reinforcer: a stimuli that acquires reinforcing properties by being paired with other
reinforcers. money is useless unless paired with clothes, travel
• Punishment: makes a response less likely to occur or simply weakens the response.
(+) a fine, spanking. (-)taking away phone because you where rude.
o Primary Punishment: a naturally punishing stimuli because it causes pain or sadness.
o Secondary Punisher: stimuli that acquires punishing properties when being paired with other
• Irritations: People’s irritations associated with other people’s behaviour. (chart 2)
• Cultural differences: irritation in collectivist cultures when they they put entire group at a
disadvantage, irritation in individualist cultures when they feel disadvantaged from everyone
else. Ex. Getting parking lot closed.
Approval Motive: because we are so dependant on others we depend on their approval.
• Norms: customary standards for behaviour that are shared widely by members of a culture.
o Normative influence: using the cues from another person’s behaviour to understand what is
o Norm of reciprocity: an expectation that individuals should benefit those who have benefitted
them. EX. If waiter leaves candy with bill, likelier to tip more.
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