Scientific method: systematic, organized series of steps that ensures maximum objectivity and consistency in researching a problem, review literature, refining questions, find out what other researchers have done, finding academic articles. Defining the problem: state as clearly as possible what you hope to investigate, operational definition: explanation of abstract concept that is specific enough to allow a researcher to assess the concept. Have to be really specific as possible. Reviewing the literature: literature: relevant scholarly studies and information that pertain to subject you are researching. Refines the problem under study, clarifies possible techniques to be used in collecting data, and eliminates or reduces avoidable mistakes. Might be an underlying variable that affects both of them o. Important to determine the research design to be used in order to collect and analyze data (see slide 2-14 to 2-23: selecting the sample. Samples: selection from a larger population that is statistically typical of that population.