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Lecture

Chapter_1

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School
University of Alberta
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC100
Professor
A L L
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Sociologists Notice Social Patterns ­ Our class, ethnicity, gender, age, and sexual orientation affect personal  experiences. ­ Research enables us to discuss social issues in on informed and critical  manner. Sociology is a Social Science ­ Shares common interests with other social sciences such as psychology,  anthropology, and political science. Table 1.1 What is Sociology? 1. Social science that studies the development, structure, and functioning of  human society. 2. Involves looking for and at social patterns in social variables, social  institutions, and social interactions. C. Wright Mills ­ Connection between how society works and how it works in terms of our  personal lives. ­ Connect ‘societal issues’ to ‘personal problems’ o Larger issues and history shape the context within which our troubles  arise. Consequences of No Sociological Imagination ­ Social issues become viewed as private problems unconnected to those larger  forces: 1. Suffering of individuals becomes personalized as one’s own fault. 2. Apathy, sense of failure, loss of language to express concerns. The First Sociologists ­ Confucius, Chinese Philosopher (479­551) o Role modeling in leadership. ­ Ibn Khaldum, Arab Scholar (1332­1406) o Introduction to history (Maqaddimah) o Societies and their histories, culture, and economies. o The Development of Western Sociology ­ Germany, France, and England during the 1800’s o Developed in response to dramatic social changes as a consequence of  industrialization.  Eg. Urbanization, population increases, changing economies  and politics. Early Sociologists Table 1.2 ­ Auguste Comte, French Philosopher (1798­1857) o Came up with the term ‘Sociology’ o Believed sociology could discover laws of human social behavior. ­ Harriet Martineau (1802­1876) o Use Comte’s work True Science of Human Nature o Studied religion, politics, childrearing, slavery, and immigration in  categories of race, class, and gender. o Call for equality of woman/woman’s rights movement. o Wrote Society in America, an analysis of social customs she observed  while travelling around the entire US in 1834. o Wrote first sociological methods book on participant observing. ­ Herbert Spencer (1820­1903) o Influenced by biologist Charles Darwin (1809­1882) and his theory of  evolution. o Most people believe Darwin coined the term ‘survival of the fittest’  but Spencer actually used the term to justify social inequalities. o Essentially it was his belief that those with wealth and power deserved  it, because they were the fittest members of society. ­ Max Weber (1864­1920) o Described how Protestantism and the religions values towards hard  work, accumulation of capital, and frugality led to the development of  modern capitalism. o Increasing rationalization of society (Bureaucracy) o Studied social action through the meanings people attach to their  actions.  “Verstehen” – understand… interpretive sociology. Structural Functionalism ­ Uses organic or biological analogy for society. ­ Identifies the various structures of society (Eg. The family) ­ Describes the functions the structures performs to maintain the entire social  system. ­ Emile Durkheim (1858­1917) o Creat
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