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Chapter_4.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC100
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A L L

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CHAPTER 4: SOCIALIZATION Socialization ­ A learning process that involves development or changes in the individuals  sense of self o Life long social experience  Develop human potential  Learn Culture Primary Socialization ­ Is socialization that occurs during childhood (through family) Secondary Socialization ­ Is the socialization that occurs later in life (through peers) o Ex. Friends or Seinfeld Watch “Mickey Mouse Monopoly” Determinism ­ The degree to which a person’s behavior, attitudes, and other personal  characteristics are determined or cause by a specific factor. Talcott Parsons ­ Socialization as end result. o Internalization  Taking social norms, roles, and values into one’s mind. o Society  The primary factor responsible for how individuals learned to  think and behave. Dennis Wrong ­ Contests Socialization: o Internalization is an over socialized conception of human beings. o Biological side of human existence. Biological Determinism ­ The greater part of who we are determined by our roughly 26 000 genes. Social and Cultural Determinism ­ Behaviorism  o Strong cultural determinist position  … Any behavior can be taught and learned (and modified) ­ Much of who we are, behaviorists would argue, is a consequence of how  previous behavior was reinforced. Cookie­cutter Syndrome ­ From ‘Nature vs. Nurture’ to ‘Nature is a part of Nurture’ ­ Childs genetic make up – parents genes  ­ Individuals grow up – societal factors contribute to individual’s personality. ­ Cookie­cutter syndrome suggests that both genetics and social experiences are  part of the socialization process. Sigmund Freud: Theory of Personality ­ Freud believes that the mind have 3 parts: o Id – unconscious instinctive drive. o Superego – our conscious. o Ego – mediates between the conscious and the unconscious while  trying to make sense of what the individual self does and thinks. Agency ­ Is the capacity to influence what happens in one’s life o Remember Dennis Wrong?  Agreed that individuals have the capacity to resist the messages  that our socializing agents give us. Agents of  Socialization ­ Groups that have a significant impact on one’s socialization. o George Herbert Mead  Significant Others  Generalized Others Mead’s Development of Self ­ 3 Stage process in the socialization of a child: o Preparatory Stage o Play Stage o Game Stage The Looking Glass Self ­ Charles Cooley (1864­1929) o Looking Glass Self as an explanation of how the self develops. o Our conception of ourselves is influenced by our perceptions of how  … The Components in this Process 1. Have to imagine how you appear to others. 2. How you imagine those others judge your appearance. 3. How you feel as a result. The Family ­ First agent of Socialization o Often the most powerful agent. o Socialization of the child is consistently seen as a function of the  family. Peer Groups ­ Social groups that share key social characteristics such as age, social position,  and common interest. ­ Peer Pressure o Social forces exerted on an individual by his or hers peers to conform  to behavior, appearance or externally demonstrated values. Neighborhood
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