CHAPTER 4: SOCIALIZATION
A learning process that involves development or changes in the individuals
sense of self
o Life long social experience
Develop human potential
Is socialization that occurs during childhood (through family)
Is the socialization that occurs later in life (through peers)
o Ex. Friends or Seinfeld
Watch “Mickey Mouse Monopoly”
The degree to which a person’s behavior, attitudes, and other personal
characteristics are determined or cause by a specific factor.
Socialization as end result.
Taking social norms, roles, and values into one’s mind.
The primary factor responsible for how individuals learned to
think and behave.
o Internalization is an over socialized conception of human beings.
o Biological side of human existence.
The greater part of who we are determined by our roughly 26 000 genes.
Social and Cultural Determinism
o Strong cultural determinist position
… Any behavior can be taught and learned (and modified)
Much of who we are, behaviorists would argue, is a consequence of how
previous behavior was reinforced. Cookiecutter Syndrome
From ‘Nature vs. Nurture’ to ‘Nature is a part of Nurture’
Childs genetic make up – parents genes
Individuals grow up – societal factors contribute to individual’s personality.
Cookiecutter syndrome suggests that both genetics and social experiences are
part of the socialization process.
Sigmund Freud: Theory of Personality
Freud believes that the mind have 3 parts:
o Id – unconscious instinctive drive.
o Superego – our conscious.
o Ego – mediates between the conscious and the unconscious while
trying to make sense of what the individual self does and thinks.
Is the capacity to influence what happens in one’s life
o Remember Dennis Wrong?
Agreed that individuals have the capacity to resist the messages
that our socializing agents give us.
Agents of Socialization
Groups that have a significant impact on one’s socialization.
o George Herbert Mead
Mead’s Development of Self
3 Stage process in the socialization of a child:
o Preparatory Stage
o Play Stage
o Game Stage
The Looking Glass Self
Charles Cooley (18641929)
o Looking Glass Self as an explanation of how the self develops.
o Our conception of ourselves is influenced by our perceptions of how
The Components in this Process
1. Have to imagine how you appear to others.
2. How you imagine those others judge your appearance.
3. How you feel as a result. The Family
First agent of Socialization
o Often the most powerful agent.
o Socialization of the child is consistently seen as a function of the
Social groups that share key social characteristics such as age, social position,
and common interest.
o Social forces exerted on an individual by his or hers peers to conform
to behavior, appearance or externally demonstrated values.