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Lecture 5

SOC210 Lecture 5: Probability

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Michelle Maroto

SOC 210 Lecture 5B Probability Outline: Where do data come from? 1. Populations and samples 2. Parameters and statistics 3. Experimental and observational studies Population and Samples What to study a populationa group that includes all cases that we are interested in But populations are almost always too large to gather information from every case Take a sample a carefully chosen subset of the population that is representative of that population And use information gathered from the cases in the sample to generalize to the population Parameters and Statistics Parameter refer to mathematical characteristics of population Statistics refer to mathematical characteristics of samples Statistics are sued to estimate parameters Experimental and Observational Studies Experimental studies Use randomization to assign treatments to cases in order to test hypothesis under controlled conditions Compare outcomes between treatment and control groups Three principles: Controlling, randomization, replication Observational studies Collect data without direct manipulation Harder to determine causality within observational studies Can be done at different points in time as prospective or retrospective studies Probability and Nonprobability Sampling 1. Want a representative sample that has the same characteristics as the population
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