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Religion and Deviancy Notes

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC224
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
Apr 2, 2014 Religion and Deviancy • Scientific misconduct? o Intentional violation of accepted scientific practice (not accidental) o Fabrication o Falsification o Ethical violations  • Ethical Violation “Tearoom Trade” Laud Humphreys o Ethical debate: are deceit and privacy violations (wrote down license plates of all  the guys, did a follow­up survey – found out they were married with kids)  justified in science to produce more accurate results? o (when gay men were pushed to margins of society, met up in public bathrooms  etc) o he put them at harm and risk of exposure which they didn’t consent to • Scientific misconduct: Explanations o 1. Bad apple/bad person theory o 2. Iceberg theory o 3. Corporatization of science • Bad apple theory o Individual, psychological (& criminological) explanation of scientific deviance o (is not a good sociological approach but is a common explanation) o Misconduct is rare, because scientists search for truth and are unlikely to be  deviant o Science has methods to identify cheaters, and so it can self­regulate • Iceberg theory o Misconduct is the ‘tip of the iceberg’ and more prevalent than most think o Structure of science encourages deviance (publish or perish) (not much oversight,  we just blindly trust them, not many replication studies) o One third of medical researchers admit to acts of misconduct (techniques of  neutralization) o Supports the idea that science needs greater outside regulation • Retraction rates on the rise o Supports iceberg theory o (can't tell as much if its fraudulent or just accidental) o pressure to publish leads to mistakes or fraud • Corporatization of science o Increasing ties between science and industry (especially w pharmaceuticals) o Public funding on decline – must seek corporate sponsorship o Most drug research is done in commercial centres ­> post­academic science  o Relationship between corporate funding and positive research findings  • Protecting Science from Misconduct o 1. Truth in science o 2. Whistle blowing o 3. Peer review • Truth o The idea that the truth will prevent fraud or fake findings (will eventually have  conflicting evidence, creating debate, supporting further research into the truth) o Problem: few publish replication studies, and no one wants studies with “no  findings” • Whistle Blowing o Such actions can result in significant legal actions o Whistle blowing carries a great risk (often get socially excluded (tattle tale)), with  very little personal reward o Organizations normally prefer to ignor
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