SOC 241: Section 1 Lecture notes
January 8th 2014
Introduction to Social Psych: Structures, Studying and Theory
Social Psychology: how we coordinate with other people, study of people’s behaviours, how people
influence each other. Really rigid, concrete, truth logic
● Examples: Attractiveness, Familiarity, Imagination
● Have a sense of attractiveness, familiarity, Imagination,
● How is it that these thing develop? How is it done?
● Formality of Structuring: How is it done, how do we decide who is and isn’t attractive,
familiar, how do we imagine?
● a link between a formal and abstract structure
○ abstract: cannot be fathomed, incomplete, unbounded edges, not concrete
● a theory then, takes a part of something structure and adds abstract to
● Must have these two parts.
● Formal parts = testable, proof part.
● without abstract = only be rigid parts, not a theory
January 10th 2014
How do we study these things?
What makes it possible to study people in the first place?
● Statistics help locate a relationship/correlation between variables
● Either people behave randomly, so there’s no point in studying or people’s behaviours are
structured. If we are structured, we should be similarly structured, not identically structured
though. (polymolygus structured)
○ biologically similar
○ neurologically: what are our brains capable of doing?
■ no obvious form of structuring, seeking that similarity = studying social psych.
● Empathy is useful day to day, but does not assist us in our understanding/critical assessment.
● Formally required, rule-like features to it, feels like you have no choice. (Ex. 2 + 2 = 4, no
debate, no options) ● Those formal structures are what we will be seeking.
● Formal aspect and abstract part
● Correlation: Direct or inverse
● Third variable: If the A acts as a common causal variable of variable B and C, there must be a
correlation between B and C
Daisy Schalling’s study of young male offenders
● Looked at verbal aggressiveness and testosterone
● What could this be? (correlation wise)
1. Testosterone → Aggressiveness
2. Aggressiveness → Testosterone
3. A common causal variable (third variable)
4. Also possible that the causes of aggressive and testosterone are correlated
Did Daisy Schalling test women as well? → would expect testosterone level to be low, if there’s a
correlation between testosterone and aggressiveness would expect women to be less aggressive.
What about non-offenders? → direct correlation should exist outside of prison as well. (prisons could
Monday January 13th 2014
Spurious reasoning: A third causal variable causes the two variable. Therefore the two variables are not
● just cause two variables seem related doesn’t mean they are.
● A constant does not explain variation.
● In order to prove a theory, must check the other possibilities
○ to say that there is a link between aggressiveness and testosterone, would have to study
a more diverse sample (ex. female offenders, and non-offenders)
We explain the variable, not just it’s values.
Friday January 17th 2014
Experimentation: have to look at all variables Internal validity: is there sold/convincing structure of the experiment.
The above designs should reduce preexisting difference, via placebos. Each design has it’s own
Blind study: subjects don’t know what group they are in.
A dose related response: doseage changes behaviour
Manipulation check: checking levels to ensure they weren’t manipulated
January 20th 2014
Midterm: Topics 1 to 4
● Hayduk Chapter 1 pages 7-33
● Hayduk Chapter 2 pages 1-45
● Baumeister & Bushman pages xvii-xviii, pages 2-45, 54-58, 401
Consilience: total separate line of evidence beginning to coordinate
Jyrus: bulges of brain
Slukis: gap/opening January 22nd 2014
Profiles of any given face we look at will be produced in the brain. Then we can recognize faces based
on these profiles. People are more likely to recognize an exaggerated/enhanced face vs. an exact face.
Averaging faces: the high number of averaged faces = more attractive
● Attractive people tend to be hired more, get more income.
January 24th 2014
Langlois and Roggman: profile nature, averaged faces to study attractiveness
● averaged faces were rated as more attractive
Ways to check theory
● Face space: