GUY DEBORD - SOCIETYOFTHE SPECTACLE
HAROLD INNIS - APLEAFORTIME
the two are responding to the same changes. they speak in very diﬀerent language and come from very diﬀerent
backgrounds but come to similar conclusions.
What can be said to not be cultur▯? Nature?
the word culture was used especially over the 18th and 19th century, especially in english, in terms of this idea of
some kind of cultivation and evolution/development/improvement, connected to the idea of progress, as a way of
othering the barbaric and savag▯ from the civilized and cultured.
notice the connection between the word culture, agriculture, and cultivation, which share these double-senses in
their meanings/usage. this idea of becoming cultured or being reﬁned in some way.
there is a discourse underscoring this all of status and distinction.
its absolutely bizarre to imagine someone without a culture
CULTURAL STUDIES as an intellectual movement has been an exploration of the centrality of the question of
meaning in people's lives. This has been relentlessly pursued in the cultural studies tradition.
one of the things that allegedly makes us human is that we give meaning to things and classify things
and this is identiﬁed as a key human attribute in anthropology - all cultures, all peoples invent classiﬁcation
systems. the use of language to name objects and so on is a key cultural thing.
two things to keep in mind
1. the importance of negatives: the construction of what culture is not. the dimension of negation is fundamental
to the production of meaning. semiotics.
2. we've just spent all this time exploring the semantic ﬁeld of the word culture, drawing out all the meanings the
word has to us. semantics.
observe magritte's this is not a pipe or duschamp's urinal to show that the medium itself changes the meaning of
duschamp, dadaist, fo