Class Notes (808,046)
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Statistics (237)
STAT151 (146)
Susan Kamp (11)


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University of Alberta
Susan Kamp

Ch 2: Data Recall: Data – can be numbers, record names, or other labels. - Not all data represented by numbers are numerical data (eg. 1 = male, 2 = female) - It must have the “five W’s”: Who, What, When, Where, and Why. Who: Who are you interested in? Who is in the target population? - Subjects or participants – people on whom we experiment o The entire set of subjects is the population. o The set of subjects you observe is your sample. - Respondents – individuals who answer a survey - Experimental units – animals, plants, and inanimate subjects What: what characteristic (or variable) are you measuring? - Variables are characteristics recorded about each individual o A variable can take different values for different individuals. o Some variables have units that tell how each value has been measured and tell the scale of the measurement 1 of 6 Types of Variables Categorical (Qualitative) Variable Numerical (Quantitative) Definition: 1. A categorical variable places a subject into one of several groups or categories (or levels).  Usually we determine the counts of cases that fall into each category 2 of 6  Two types: i. Nominal: the levels have no order ii. Ordinal: the levels have some order Example: a) gender (M or F)  b)hair color (blonde, white, black, red, etc…)  c) nationality (Canadian, American, German, French, Chinese, Japanese, etc…)  d)letter grade (A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D+, D, F)  e) car manufacturer (Dodge, Honda, Ford, Others)  f) opinion (strongly agree, agree, neutral, disagree, strongly disagree)  g)education level (high school diploma, undergraduate degree, graduate degree)  2. A quantitative variable measures a numerical quantity or amount in each subject.  Two types: i. Discrete: can only take on distinct values ii. Continuous: can take on any value in a given interval 3 of 6 Example 2: A medical study. Data from a medical study contain values of many variables of each of the people who were the subjects of the study. Which of the following variables are categorical and which are quantitative? a) Age (years) b) Race (Asian, black, white, or other) c) Smoker (yes or no) d) Systolic blood pressure (mill
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