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Gregory Wagner

Lec33 BIOL207 2014-04-02 A. Eukaryotic gene regulation a. RNApol plus other compone nts of the “basal transcriptional machinery” form a complex; this alone gives weak or no transcription b. transcription factors (TFs; a type of trans-factor) interact with basal transcriptional complex to activate transcription c. some TFs can also repress transcription d. TFs bind to cis-elements usually called enhancers e. enhancers may be upstream or downstream (and may be hundreds or thousands of bp away) from where RNApol binds (DNA is flexible) f. cis-elements (also called promoter elements, enhancers) are bound by trans-factors (transcription factors, TFs) B. Example: Drosophila yellow a. yellow gene makes black pigment b. loss of an enhancer for expression in abdomen makes wt (black) flies ha ve yellow bodies c. gain of an enhancer (e.g. in wings) explains black wing spots in some species d. shows how heritable changes can occur in phenotype, without changing coding sequence e. also shows modularity of control of eukaryotic gene expression C. Hemoglobin (Hb) expression in placental mammals a. example of a gene family i. duplication, mutation, selection of genes lead to proteins with slightly different properties ii. sometimes after duplication, a mutation makes a gene permanently non -functional i.e. a pseudogene
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