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University of Alberta
Gregory Wagner

Lec35 BIOL207 2014-04-07 CHAPTER 13 Cancer Genetics A. Cancer Biology a. cancer = group of related diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and sometimes metastasis e.g. b. classified by tissue of origin, e.g. i. carcinoma, melanomas from melanocyte cells of skin ii. adenocarcinoma from glandular tissues iii. sarcomas from muscle c. progressive disease: i. early stages usually just uncontrolled cell division (=tumor) ii. later stages: metastasis d. Hallmarks of cancer (Table 13.1, yes, you have to know these for the exam) i. growth signal autonomy ii. insensitivity to growth inhibitory signals iii. evasion of apoptosis iv. reproductive potential not limited by telomeres v. sustained angiogenesis vi. tissue invasion, metastasis vii. deregulated metabolic pathways viii. evasion of immune system ix. chromosomal instability x. inflammation B. Cancer Genetics a. Carcinogens i. Substance that increases incidence of cancer 1. Mutagens 2. Non-mutagens (i.e. accelerate cell division without damaging DNA) a. e.g. HPV human papilloma virus i. viral proteins mimic some of the natural proteins that regulate cell division b. Targets of carcinogens i. Proto-oncogenes 1. Part of normal regulation of cell division 2. > 100 proto-oncogenes in human genome, including growth factors, receptors, signal transducers … 3. Any mutation of a proto -oncogene that makes it more active than normal can turn it into an oncogene a. e.g. higher than normal expression levels, loss negative regulation,
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