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University of Alberta
Gregory Wagner

Lec34 BIOL207 2014-04-04 A. Other aspects of transcriptional regulation ( i.e. besides trans-factors/cis-elements) a. chromatin structure i. euchromatin: more actively transcribed ii. heterochromatin: contains very few actively transcribed genes b. histone modification i. acetylation/deacetylation of specific amino acids within the histone acetylated histones tend to be more transcriptionally active acetylation patterns can be conserved even after DNA replication c. DNA modification i. methylation/demethy lation of specific bases (especially C, when C is followed by G “CpG”) highly methylated C tends to be correlated with lower transcriptional activity methylation patterns can be conserved even after DNA replication (a methyltransferase can look for methy lation on the template strand and add it on the daughter strand) B. Epigenetics (defined) a. heritable (and usually reversible) changes to phenotype that do not change sequence of DNA i. some epigenetic information is conserved even after mitosis ii. some epigenetic information is conserved even after meiosis iii. can be considered a type of cellular memory b. mechanisms of epigenetics may include histone modification, methylation, etc. C. Vernalization as an example of epigenetics i. some plants (e.g. some varieties of wheat) a re planted in fall; these grow during fall then resume growth in spring ii. plants need to know that winter has passed before resuming growth and reproduction iii. a repressor (FLC) prevents transcription of genes for flowering 1. at germination, most histones that a re associated with FLC are acetylated 2. histones are gradually deacet
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