Chapter 1, Done in LaTeX

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Statistics: the science of acquiring information from data. Data: the information gathered from surveys or experiments. Population: the entire group of objects about which information is wanted. Sample: a subset of the population used to gain information about the whole. Sample average: the average of a sample. (cid:80) x n. Random sampling: a sampled selected from the population at random. Census: a sample that consists of the whole population. Inferential statistic: making a prediction or decision about a population using sample data. Design: planning how to obtain data to answer the questions of interest. Con dence interval: an indication of the reliability of an estimate. Confounding variable: an extraneous variable that correlates (positively or negatively) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable. Causal inference: an inference that draws a conclusion that a variable causes changes in the occurrence of another variable (a causal relationship).

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