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Lecture 1

ZOOL342 Lecture 1: Introduction

6 Pages

Zoology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
Declan Ali

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find more resources at 1. Introduction Nervous System  Controls and coordinates our muscles and movements  Composed of two main cell types o Neuron cells o Glial cells  Physical support and structure; clean up the space surrounding our nerve cells; help to support cell activity; but also communicate in a fashion much like how neurons communicate Basic trends in Nervous Systems 1. Bilateral symmetry 2. Specialized function of individual neurons 3. Cephalization 4. Hierarchical organization i) Central Nervous System Arthropods  Each segment (thora▯i▯, a▯do▯i▯al…) houses o▯e ga▯glio▯  Still see bilateral symmetry  Take a slice of an individual ganglia, see a typical structure o Neurons (their cell bodies) are housed in the periphery o Tracts, commissures, and neuropils lie in the central-dorsal region  Tracts are tubes that allow the passage of axons; axons will then travel all the way down the nervous system; Run from the last abdominal ganglia, allllllllllll the way up to the brain (will therefore run within the connectives that connect each of the ganglions).  Commissures are regions that allow axons to travel back and forth laterally within a ganglion (so that cells can then project out to the left and to the right)  Neuropile is where synaptic connections are made; places where cells contact another cell and initiate information transfer in the next cell Escape Response in Cockroach  Little hairs on their legs that detect wind movement  Send information from sensory neurons to the terminal ganglion  “y▯apse i▯ ▯europile regio▯ with a large ▯Gia▯t I▯ter▯euro▯▯ o Whenever cells need to transfer information extremely rapidly, the neurons involved are almost always large diameter neurons (Send action potentials at a high conduction velocity)  Sends axons to the tracts and connectives to the thoracic ganglia find more resources at find more resources at  Send information to motor neurons  Send information to muscle fibres  Muscles react; run away from the stimulus Vertebrate Nervous System  Take a cross section of a spinal column, find a differentiation of regions based on color  Central = grey matter = mostly cell bodies (and some non-myelinated axons); peripheral = white matter = primarily myelinated axons sending info up and down the spinal cords  Dorsal region --> dorsal root --> DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons = sensory in nature  Ventral root has axons of motor neurons o Travel out to the periphery to muscle fibres to activate and cause contraction  SO, sensory info comes in dorsally, processed in the central CNS, and then sent out  Figure, info comes in via sensory neuron, meets interneuron, sent out via motor neuron Spinal Cord Segments  Cervical o 8  Thoracic o 12  Lumbar o 5  Sacral o 5  Coccygeal o 1  We see a trend that as you move up (from coccyx  cervical, or tailbone  head), there is an increase in ratio of white:grey matter o More and more white matter as you move closer to your head o Happens because as you move up you have more axons coming in and sending info up to the brain ii) Peripheral Nervous System Somatic PNS  Skeletal muscle  Neurons that innervate the skin, joints and muscle  Voluntary  Motor neurons cell bodies lie within the spinal cord  Sensory neurons cell bodies lie within the DRG Visceral PNS  Involuntary functions  Neurons that innervate internal organs, blood vessels, and glands find more resources at find more resources at  Control smooth muscle (blood vessels
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