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Lecture 1

ZOOL342 Lecture 1: Introduction

6 Pages
32 Views
Winter 2017

Department
Zoology (Biological Sciences)
Course Code
ZOOL342
Professor
Declan Ali
Lecture
1

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1. Introduction
Nervous System
Controls and coordinates our muscles and movements
Composed of two main cell types
o Neuron cells
o Glial cells
Physical support and structure; clean up the space surrounding our nerve cells;
help to support cell activity; but also communicate in a fashion much like how
neurons communicate
Basic trends in Nervous Systems
1. Bilateral symmetry
2. Specialized function of individual neurons
3. Cephalization
4. Hierarchical organization
i) Central Nervous System
Arthropods
Each segment (thorai, adoial…) houses oe gaglio
Still see bilateral symmetry
Take a slice of an individual ganglia, see a typical structure
o Neurons (their cell bodies) are housed in the periphery
o Tracts, commissures, and neuropils lie in the central-dorsal region
Tracts are tubes that allow the passage of axons; axons will then travel all the
way down the nervous system; Run from the last abdominal ganglia, allllllllllll
the way up to the brain (will therefore run within the connectives that connect
each of the ganglions).
Commissures are regions that allow axons to travel back and forth laterally
within a ganglion (so that cells can then project out to the left and to the right)
Neuropile is where synaptic connections are made; places where cells contact
another cell and initiate information transfer in the next cell
Escape Response in Cockroach
Little hairs on their legs that detect wind movement
Send information from sensory neurons to the terminal ganglion
“yapse i europile regio with a large Giat Itereuro
o Whenever cells need to transfer information extremely rapidly, the neurons involved
are almost always large diameter neurons (Send action potentials at a high conduction
velocity)
Sends axons to the tracts and connectives to the thoracic ganglia
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Send information to motor neurons
Send information to muscle fibres
Muscles react; run away from the stimulus
Vertebrate Nervous System
Take a cross section of a spinal column, find a differentiation of regions based on color
Central = grey matter = mostly cell bodies (and some non-myelinated axons); peripheral =
white matter = primarily myelinated axons sending info up and down the spinal cords
Dorsal region --> dorsal root --> DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons = sensory in nature
Ventral root has axons of motor neurons
o Travel out to the periphery to muscle fibres to activate and cause contraction
SO, sensory info comes in dorsally, processed in the central CNS, and then sent out
Figure, info comes in via sensory neuron, meets interneuron, sent out via motor neuron
Spinal Cord Segments
Cervical
o 8
Thoracic
o 12
Lumbar
o 5
Sacral
o 5
Coccygeal
o 1
We see a trend that as you move up (from coccyx cervical, or tailbone head), there is an
increase in ratio of white:grey matter
o More and more white matter as you move closer to your head
o Happens because as you move up you have more axons coming in and sending info up
to the brain
ii) Peripheral Nervous System
Somatic PNS
Skeletal muscle
Neurons that innervate the skin, joints and muscle
Voluntary
Motor neurons cell bodies lie within the spinal cord
Sensory neurons cell bodies lie within the DRG
Visceral PNS
Involuntary functions
Neurons that innervate internal organs, blood vessels, and glands
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

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Description
find more resources at oneclass.com 1. Introduction Nervous System  Controls and coordinates our muscles and movements  Composed of two main cell types o Neuron cells o Glial cells  Physical support and structure; clean up the space surrounding our nerve cells; help to support cell activity; but also communicate in a fashion much like how neurons communicate Basic trends in Nervous Systems 1. Bilateral symmetry 2. Specialized function of individual neurons 3. Cephalization 4. Hierarchical organization i) Central Nervous System Arthropods  Each segment (thora▯i▯, a▯do▯i▯al…) houses o▯e ga▯glio▯  Still see bilateral symmetry  Take a slice of an individual ganglia, see a typical structure o Neurons (their cell bodies) are housed in the periphery o Tracts, commissures, and neuropils lie in the central-dorsal region  Tracts are tubes that allow the passage of axons; axons will then travel all the way down the nervous system; Run from the last abdominal ganglia, allllllllllll the way up to the brain (will therefore run within the connectives that connect each of the ganglions).  Commissures are regions that allow axons to travel back and forth laterally within a ganglion (so that cells can then project out to the left and to the right)  Neuropile is where synaptic connections are made; places where cells contact another cell and initiate information transfer in the next cell Escape Response in Cockroach  Little hairs on their legs that detect wind movement  Send information from sensory neurons to the terminal ganglion  “y▯apse i▯ ▯europile regio▯ with a large ▯Gia▯t I▯ter▯euro▯▯ o Whenever cells need to transfer information extremely rapidly, the neurons involved are almost always large diameter neurons (Send action potentials at a high conduction velocity)  Sends axons to the tracts and connectives to the thoracic ganglia find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Send information to motor neurons  Send information to muscle fibres  Muscles react; run away from the stimulus Vertebrate Nervous System  Take a cross section of a spinal column, find a differentiation of regions based on color  Central = grey matter = mostly cell bodies (and some non-myelinated axons); peripheral = white matter = primarily myelinated axons sending info up and down the spinal cords  Dorsal region --> dorsal root --> DRG (dorsal root ganglion) neurons = sensory in nature  Ventral root has axons of motor neurons o Travel out to the periphery to muscle fibres to activate and cause contraction  SO, sensory info comes in dorsally, processed in the central CNS, and then sent out  Figure, info comes in via sensory neuron, meets interneuron, sent out via motor neuron Spinal Cord Segments  Cervical o 8  Thoracic o 12  Lumbar o 5  Sacral o 5  Coccygeal o 1  We see a trend that as you move up (from coccyx  cervical, or tailbone  head), there is an increase in ratio of white:grey matter o More and more white matter as you move closer to your head o Happens because as you move up you have more axons coming in and sending info up to the brain ii) Peripheral Nervous System Somatic PNS  Skeletal muscle  Neurons that innervate the skin, joints and muscle  Voluntary  Motor neurons cell bodies lie within the spinal cord  Sensory neurons cell bodies lie within the DRG Visceral PNS  Involuntary functions  Neurons that innervate internal organs, blood vessels, and glands find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com  Control smooth muscle (blood vessels
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