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University of Calgary
ACCT 301

Organizations How they are defined and classified, their differences and why we need them. Basically an organization is a group of individuals operating together in a systematic way to achieve a set of objectives. Therefore, the three characteristics of an organization are: 1. People 2. Purpose 3. Structure Organizations may also be defined as a machine. It receives inputs from its environment in the form of resources and converts them into outputs, which satisfy demand. Inputs -> Organization Processes -> Outputs why are organizations needed? Organizations enable objectives to be achieved that could not be achieved by the efforts of individuals on their own, therefore they exist to: 1. Overcome people’s individual limitations 2. Enable people to specialize 3. Save time 4. Enable people to pool their expertise 5. They are power centers – organization may be able to influence events on a large scale by influencing demand, winning orders and creating wealth. 6. Enable synergy: i.e. 1+1=3! By bringing together two individuals their combined output will exceed their output if they continued working separately? How do organizations differ? The differences between organizations are so large that it may be quite impossible to list them all; yet, one may classify their differences into the following categories: 1. Structure: Formal or Informal? 2. Classification by size: e.g. number of emp
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