ARHI 203 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Confraternity, Birds Eye View, Florence Baptistery

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Thursday,*January*14,*2015
Geographical,Focus:,Florence
Subtheme:,Civic*Space*and*Ideals
Note:*This*was*a*new*notion,*prior*to*civic*space*and*ideals*there*were*kingdoms
Italy*as*it*is*known*today*did*not*exist
Republic -Mercantile-based*economies,*wealthy,*prosperous*(Eg.*Venice,*
Florence,*Sienna)
1.
Far*apart*geographically,*but*shared*similarities*due*to*political*
inter-marriages*between*ruling*families
A*lot*of*exchange*of*art
Celebration*of*king,*upholding*of*kingdom*values
Ruled,by,Sovreign,(royalty): Eg.*Milan,*Naples,*Sicily
2.
Papal,states: Under*the*authority*of*the*pope.*Included*Rome
3.
Political*Geography*was*divided*into*3*entities/*types*of*state*formations
Since*there*was*no*Italy,*there*was*no*Italian*language,*all* states*spoke*different*
dialects
Common*language*was*Latin
Dante*published*the*Divine*Comedy*in*Tuscan*(his*own)*dialect*-main*base*of*
modern*Italian
Constant*battles,*therefore*constant*border*shifts
C.*1450
Florence:*View*with*the*Chain
City*surrounded*by*wall
Can*see*the*Duomo
Provides*clean*and*constant*water*supply
§
Helps*in*manufacturing
§
Arno*river*runs*through*the*city
Massive*gates*which*open*in*day*time*and*close*at*night
Bird's*eye*view*of*the*City*of*Florence
Florence's*population*at*the*time*was*about*100,000*whereas*London/Paris*had*
20,000
Florence*Law:*Every*will*written*had*to*provide*funds*for*Florence*walls
1480,*Woodcut,*Rosselli
In*charge*of*quality*control,*caring*for*members,*managing*crisis
Were*extremely*powerful*in*Florence,*dictated*economic*prosperity*and*civic*
power
Were*self-regulated
Guilds: Group*of*people*sharing*similar*professions*or*associations*(Modern-day*
example:*unions)
Refiners*of*imported*woolen*cloths
Wool*merchants
Judges*and*Notaries/*Lawyers
Bankers*and*money*traders
Furries*(those*who*design,*clean*and*repair*furs)
Doctors*and*pharmacists
Guild*System*in*Florence*as*at*the*Beginning*of*the*14th*Century:*7*Major*Guilds
Wool*was*an*important*commodity
Artists*were*part*of*the*Doctors*and*Pharmacists*guild*because*of*the*
preparation*of*paint.*Also*shared*the*same*patron*saint*-St.*Luke
A*separate*branch*later*emerged*for*artists
Orsanmichele
The*main*floor*housed*the*market*while*the*top*2*floors*were*used*for*
storage
Originally*built*as*an*open-air*gallery*to*store*and*sell*grain
As*Florence's*population*increased,*grains*needed*to*be*imported*to*avoid*
famine
Orsanmichele*became*an*economic*site
A*confraternity*was*established*to*give*out*alms*and*protect*the*image*of*the*
miracle*working*virgin*(1355-1359)
Charity
§
Economic*centre
§
Very*important*religious*site*(due*to*the*miracle-working*virgin*
housed*there)
§
Brought*together*multiple*facets*of*society
Served*as*a*site*of:
This*was*an*expensive*proposition
Brought*about*a*great*influx*of*money,*especially*2*artists
Guilds*were*tasked*with*decorating*14*niches*around*the*building
2*Examples
1337-1380
The,Four,Crowned,Martyrs
Commissioned*by*guild*of*stone*and*wood*cutters
References*story*of*3rd*century*artisans*who*were*tasked*to*make*an*image*of*a*
pagan*god.*They*refused*because*they*were*Christian*so*the*king*had*them*
beheaded*->*Considered*to*be*martyrs*->*the*martyred*are*crowned*in*heaven
Setting*resembles*gothic*church
Solid*stoic*looks*with*robes*flowing*in*Roman*styles
Each*martyr*is*shown*individually*-different*expressions*and*different*ages
They*are*arranged*in*a*semi-circle.*On*looker*completes*the*circle* and*
joins*the*important*choice
Their*feet*stick*out*into*our*world*-referencing*a*sense*of*realism*and*3*
dimensionality
References*a*viewer*necessary*to*complete*the*circle
New*kind*of*spatial*arrangement*and*dialogue*-self-aware*of*passer-by
1409-17,*Nanni*di*Banco
Panel*Relief*Detail
Building*a*wall1.
Measuring2.
-3.
Sculpting4.
Purpose*was*to*promote*the*work*of*the*guild
Various*activities*of*stonemasons*and*carvers
Relief: to*do*with*distance*and*depth*of*plane*to*help*with*appearance*of*3D
Saint,George
Commissioned*by*guild*of*Armour*and*Swordsmakers
When*it*was*completed,*the*figure*was*weraing*an*actual*sword*and*armour*-
looked*spectacular*as*it*captured*the*Tuscan*sun
Ad*for*swordsmakers
At*the*ready*to*defend*the*land
Served*as*analogy*for*the*city*of*Florence
Expresson:*furrowed*brow*-thinking,*pensive;*thinking*of*strategies
Tradition*of*Chivalry
1415-17*by*Donatello
The*feat*that*made*St.*George*famous*-saving*the*princess
Donatello*used*a*somewhat*painter*technique*to*a*3d*effect*as*opposed*to*di*
Banco's*deep*relief*technique
Panel*Relief*detail: St.*George*and*the*Dragon
Cathedral,Complex
Duomo*=*cathedral*in*Italian
Tax*was*implemented*to*raise*funds
Responsibility*fell*on*all*citizens
Was*overseen*by*Guild
Baptistery:*where*you*go*to*get*baptised
§Guilt*Bronze
§Meant*to*project*wealth*of*city
§Tells*story*of*John*the*Baptist*(Patron*Saint)
South*Doors:*Andrea*Pisano,*C.*1330
Florence*Baptistery: Doors were*very*important
'Duomo''*derived*from*house*in*Latin*(Domus)
Lecture'2'Week'1
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Thursday,*January*14,*2015
Geographical,Focus:,Florence
Subtheme:,Civic*Space*and*Ideals
Note:*This*was*a*new*notion,*prior*to*civic*space*and*ideals*there*were*kingdoms
Italy*as*it*is*known*today*did*not*exist
Republic -Mercantile-based*economies,*wealthy,*prosperous*(Eg.*Venice,*
Florence,*Sienna)
1.
Far*apart*geographically,*but*shared*similarities*due*to*political*
inter-marriages*between*ruling*families
§
A*lot*of*exchange*of*art
§
Celebration*of*king,*upholding*of*kingdom*values
§
Ruled,by,Sovreign,(royalty): Eg.*Milan,*Naples,*Sicily2.
Papal,states: Under*the*authority*of*the*pope.*Included*Rome3.
Political*Geography*was*divided*into*3*entities/*types*of*state*formations
Since*there*was*no*Italy,*there*was*no*Italian*language,*all* states*spoke*different*
dialects
Common*language*was*Latin
Dante*published*the*Divine*Comedy*in*Tuscan*(his*own)*dialect*-main*base*of*
modern*Italian
Constant*battles,*therefore*constant*border*shifts
C.*1450
Florence:*View*with*the*Chain
City*surrounded*by*wall
Can*see*the*Duomo
Provides*clean*and*constant*water*supply
Helps*in*manufacturing
Arno*river*runs*through*the*city
Massive*gates*which*open*in*day*time*and*close*at*night
Bird's*eye*view*of*the*City*of*Florence
Florence's*population*at*the*time*was*about*100,000*whereas*London/Paris*had*
20,000
Florence*Law:*Every*will*written*had*to*provide*funds*for*Florence*walls
1480,*Woodcut,*Rosselli
In*charge*of*quality*control,*caring*for*members,*managing*crisis
Were*extremely*powerful*in*Florence,*dictated*economic*prosperity*and*civic*
power
Were*self-regulated
Guilds: Group*of*people*sharing*similar*professions*or*associations*(Modern-day*
example:*unions)
Refiners*of*imported*woolen*cloths
Wool*merchants
Judges*and*Notaries/*Lawyers
Bankers*and*money*traders
Furries*(those*who*design,*clean*and*repair*furs)
Doctors*and*pharmacists
Guild*System*in*Florence*as*at*the*Beginning*of*the*14th*Century:*7*Major*Guilds
Wool*was*an*important*commodity
Artists*were*part*of*the*Doctors*and*Pharmacists*guild*because*of*the*
preparation*of*paint.*Also*shared*the*same*patron*saint*-St.*Luke
A*separate*branch*later*emerged*for*artists
Orsanmichele
The*main*floor*housed*the*market*while*the*top*2*floors*were*used*for*
storage
Originally*built*as*an*open-air*gallery*to*store*and*sell*grain
As*Florence's*population*increased,*grains*needed*to*be*imported*to*avoid*
famine
Orsanmichele*became*an*economic*site
A*confraternity*was*established*to*give*out*alms*and*protect*the*image*of*the*
miracle*working*virgin*(1355-1359)
Charity
§
Economic*centre
§
Very*important*religious*site*(due*to*the*miracle-working*virgin*
housed*there)
§
Brought*together*multiple*facets*of*society
Served*as*a*site*of:
This*was*an*expensive*proposition
Brought*about*a*great*influx*of*money,*especially*2*artists
Guilds*were*tasked*with*decorating*14*niches*around*the*building
2*Examples
1337-1380
The,Four,Crowned,Martyrs
Commissioned*by*guild*of*stone*and*wood*cutters
References*story*of*3rd*century*artisans*who*were*tasked*to*make*an*image*of*a*
pagan*god.*They*refused*because*they*were*Christian*so*the*king*had*them*
beheaded*->*Considered*to*be*martyrs*->*the*martyred*are*crowned*in*heaven
Setting*resembles*gothic*church
Solid*stoic*looks*with*robes*flowing*in*Roman*styles
Each*martyr*is*shown*individually*-different*expressions*and*different*ages
They*are*arranged*in*a*semi-circle.*On*looker*completes*the*circle* and*
joins*the*important*choice
Their*feet*stick*out*into*our*world*-referencing*a*sense*of*realism*and*3*
dimensionality
References*a*viewer*necessary*to*complete*the*circle
New*kind*of*spatial*arrangement*and*dialogue*-self-aware*of*passer-by
1409-17,*Nanni*di*Banco
Panel*Relief*Detail
Building*a*wall1.
Measuring2.
-3.
Sculpting4.
Purpose*was*to*promote*the*work*of*the*guild
Various*activities*of*stonemasons*and*carvers
Relief: to*do*with*distance*and*depth*of*plane*to*help*with*appearance*of*3D
Saint,George
Commissioned*by*guild*of*Armour*and*Swordsmakers
When*it*was*completed,*the*figure*was*weraing*an*actual*sword*and*armour*-
looked*spectacular*as*it*captured*the*Tuscan*sun
Ad*for*swordsmakers
At*the*ready*to*defend*the*land
Served*as*analogy*for*the*city*of*Florence
Expresson:*furrowed*brow*-thinking,*pensive;*thinking*of*strategies
Tradition*of*Chivalry
1415-17*by*Donatello
The*feat*that*made*St.*George*famous*-saving*the*princess
Donatello*used*a*somewhat*painter*technique*to*a*3d*effect*as*opposed*to*di*
Banco's*deep*relief*technique
Panel*Relief*detail: St.*George*and*the*Dragon
Cathedral,Complex
Duomo*=*cathedral*in*Italian
Tax*was*implemented*to*raise*funds
Responsibility*fell*on*all*citizens
Was*overseen*by*Guild
Baptistery:*where*you*go*to*get*baptised
§Guilt*Bronze
§Meant*to*project*wealth*of*city
§Tells*story*of*John*the*Baptist*(Patron*Saint)
South*Doors:*Andrea*Pisano,*C.*1330
Florence*Baptistery: Doors were*very*important
'Duomo''*derived*from*house*in*Latin*(Domus)
Lecture'2'Week'1
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