ARHI203 Lecture 7: Lecture 7 Week 5

79 views8 pages
10 Feb 2016
Department
Course
The$Renaissance$in$the$North
We#will#now#be#looking#representative#examples#of#different#types#of#objects#
and#different#varieties#and#genres#that#emerged#from#these#periods
Purpose:#To#provoke#sub-discussions#within#the#theme#of#the#Renaissance#in#
the#North
Discussion#of#the#renaissance#in#the#North#is#problematic/limited#as#
compared#to#discussions#in#Florence#or#Italy#-largely#due#to#the#fact#that#not#
many#objects#from#these#regions#have#survived,#they#were#destroyed#in#wars#
and#bombing
Art#history#tends#to#privilege#Italian#examples#from#the#15th#and#16th#
Centuries
There#were#a#lot#of#interactions#between#the#North#and#the#South,#and#
Italian#artists#were#often#greatly#influenced#by#what#was#happening#in#the#
North
Botticelli# not#only#looked#into#vases#from#the#medieval#period,#but#also#the#
tapestry#traditions#from#the#North
These#4#regions#are#known#as#the#North#because#they#were#ruled#by#
the#Dukes#of#Burgundy#during#the#late#14th,#early#15th#centuries
They#were#the#most#powerful#political# force#in#Northern#Europe#during#
that#period
Bruges#would#have#been#one#of#the#major#centres#in#all#of#Europe#for#
shipping#and#trading#-would#have#had#the#power#and#economic#
strength#to#rival#places#like#Venice#and#Florence
Geographical$focus:Belgium,#the#Netherlands,#part#of#England,#and#Eastern#
France#is#what#is#defined#as#the#North
They#were#powerful#political#unit
Court#was#mobile,#art#produced#tended#to#be#smaller#so#it#could#be#moved#
as#needed
Dukes$of$Burgundy
name#given#to#a#series#of#wars#which#had#dramatic#impact#on#politics#and#
finance#
War#between#kingdom#of#England#and#Kingdom#of#France,#who#were#fighting#
to#expand#territory
Put#an#end#to#the#grand#scale#gothic#construction#that#was#taking#place#in#
the#North#during#the#Medieval#period,#instead#there#are#smaller#scale#artistic#
productions
Hundred$Years'$War$(1337-1453)
Our#largest#example#from#the#north#because#we#have#the#most#surviving#
examples#available
Will#also#be#used#to#introduce#an#important#invention#or#development:#
Painting$in$Oil,#transformed#the#way#objects#could#be#made,#and#how#they#
eventually#looked
Painted$Alter$Piece
Mobile#painted#objects#were#traditionally#done#in#tempera
Particularly#popular#in#Italy#and#throughout#Europe#in#the#Medieval#period,#
14th#and#early#15th#centuries
Way#of#painting#where#egg#yolk#is#the#binding#agent#which#holds#the#colour#
pigments#onto#the#surface
dries#quickly,#cant#store#mixed#colours;#have#to#mix#in#small#amounts#
and#apply#very#quickly,#cannot#blend#colours,#
Has#a#number#of#limitations:
Flat#look#to#paintings
Wood#tends#to#be#very#absorbent#so#artist#has#to#prepare#the#wood#by#
applying#a#layer#of#gesso#so#that#the#wood#doesn't#absorb#all#the#
expensive#pigment#
Overall#a#very#labour-intensive#process
"Ultramarine"#comes#from#the#Latin#word#"Ultramarinus"#-
on#the#other#side#of#the#ocean
Lapis#Lazuli:#A#mineral#from#which#Ultramarine#Blue#was#derived#
from,#at#the#time#it#was#found#only#in#(what#is#modern-day)
Afghanistan
§
Pigments#would#come#from#natural#minerals,#plants,#or#animals
Traditionally#they#were#tempera#on#(wood)#panel.#
Tempera
Drastic#departure#from#the#way#art#was#normally#produced
Was#used#as#early#as#the#12th#Century#in#Europe,#but#wasn't#fully#
incorporated#until#about#15th#century
Several#factors#led#to#artists#learning#about#the#flexibility#and#versatility#of#oil#
vs.#Tempera
Dries#very#slowly:#1-3#days
Can#apply#very#thin#layer#of#colour#then#build#it#up#on#a#surface#in#a#
way#that#was#not#possible#with#tempera
Can#add#colour,#manipulate#depth#and#texture,#and#add#glazes
Use#of#oil#allowed#for#more#flexibility
Oil$Painting$
Polyptychs
Tableaux(Vivants
Karl$van$Mander
Grisaille
Hubert#and#Jan#Van#Eyck: Ghent$Altarpiece
1432,#Cathedral#of#St.#Bavo,#Ghent,#Oil#on#Panel
Monumental#Freestanding#altarpiece
One#of#the#most#characteristic#artistic#outputs#of#the#Northern#Renaissance
In#virtue#of#a#Polyptych:#an#altarpiece# that#is#hinged#in#multiple#spaces#and#has#
multiple#panels#and#reliefs#when#it#is#opened
Upon#completion,#the#altarpiece#was#famous
1458:#the#Duke#of#Burgundy#(Philip#the#Good)#visited#the#city#of#Ghent#to#see#the#
altarpiece.#To#celebrate# his#visit,#the#townspeople#gathered#on#the#streets#and#put#
on#a#Tableau(Vivant (living#image);#dressed#up#as#characters#in#the#altarpiece,#to#
greet#him
Karel$van$Mander was#a#16th#century#artist#and#art#historian,#wrote#about#
the#Ghent#Altarpiece#as#being#one#of#the#definitive#works#of#the#period#that#
shaped#the#way#artists#paint#and#practice#art#over#the#course#of#the#next#few#
100#years
The#altarpiece# also#established#scholarship#from#the#16th#century
15#ft#across#and#11#ft#high#when#open
The#frame#that#is#lost#reported#the#date#of#completion#and#the#name#of#who#
commissioned#it
The#Donor#was#appointed#magistrate#shortly#after#this#piece#was#completed
Commissioned#to#be#placed#in#a#private#chapel#with#political# gain#in#mind
Closed#View
3#Registers
4#Niches#depicting#representations#of#prophets#and#sibyls#who#foretold#the#
coming#of#Christ
Top$Register
4#Panels:#Angel#Gabriel#on#the#extreme#left#and#Virgin#Mary#and#the#
Holy#Spirit#on#the#Far#Right,#2#unoccupied#(by#bodies)#panels#that#
separate#the#2#figures#-artists#used#these#panels#to#depict#a#cityscape#
in#the#background,#scholars#do#not#know#where#this#view#is,#believed#
to#be#out#of#their#studio
Included#still-life#compositions
Attributes#of#Annunciation#included:#Lilies#to#depict#the#purity#and#
virginity#of#Mary,#Interrupted#reading#the#bible#underscores#her#piety#
and#devotion
Angel#Gabriel#addresses#Mary#(Hail#Mary)
§
Mary's#response#is#written#backwards#and#upside#down#-
not#for#viewers#but#rather#for#God#himself#to#read
Makes#us#aware#of#who#this#work#is#for
Mary#responds#with#(behold#the#handmaid#of#the#lord)#-
accepting#the#task#handed#to#her
§
Writing#on#the#panel:
Practice#of#writing#on#images#comes#from#the#Medeival#period#-
draws#attention#to#the#2-dimentionality#of#the#image
§
Draperies#of#the#figures#-no#suggestions#of#bodies#underneath:#
typical#of#Northern#Renaissance#painting#and#representations
§
Figures#are#too#big#for#the#room#they#are#positioned#in
§
Tensions#between#Medieval#traits#and#Renaissance#characteristics
Prophets#and#Sibyls#look#down#and#bare#witness#to#the#unfolding#of#
the#prophecy#they#foretold
The#Annunciation
Central$Register
3#Niche-like#structures#united#with#similar#architectures
The#fur#on#the#donor's#collar#-can#make#out#the#individual#hairs
§
Can#make#out#the#eyes#and#the#wrinkles#around#them
§
Ability#to#give#such#detail#cannot#happen#with#tempera
§
The#2#donors#are#depicted#in#red#and#with#life-like#detail
§
2#on#the#outer#side#are#believed#to#be#the#donor#and#his#wife-kneeling
St.#John#the#Baptist#and#John#the#Evangelist#are#in#centre
Type#of#painting#done#in#gray#tones#or#pigments#to#echo/mimic#
sculpture
§
Technique#often#used#on#exteriors#of#altarpieces# for#practical#
and#visual#reasons
§
An#altarpiece#like#this#would#be#closed#for#the#majority#of#the#
year,#would#only#be#open#on#feast#days#or#to#celebrate#big#
occasions
§
Depicted#in#a#technique#known#as#Grisaille
4#figures#represented
Lower$Register
adds#to#the#visual#splendour#of#the#interior
Candle#light#and#incense#that#burn#in#churches#would#damage#the#exterior#
colour,#so#they#used#muted#tones#to#preserve#the#pigment#for#the#interior
Exteriors#of#altarpieces#tend#to#be#represented#with#muted#colours#and#limited#
pigments
Interior#View
Centre:#Representation#of#God#the#father#-wearing#the#papal#crown,##and#an#
earthly#crown#sits#at#his#feet
Holding#a#scepter#-traditional#sign#of#power
Enthroned#-Mary#and#John#the#Baptist#on#either#side
Mary#is#crowned#-notice#the#attention#to#detail#on#the#jewels#and#colour
Both#Mary#and#John#are#shown#reading#the#bible#-referencing#word#of#God
On#either#side#of#Mary#and#John#we#have#choirs#of#angels,#singing#and#
making#music#-referencing#the#sounds#of#heaven#that#may#have#mimicked#
what#a#worshipper#would#hear#in#the#church#when#they#went#to#pray
Each#angel#has#a#separate#crown,#and#the#carving#of#the#stand#that#holds#the#
book#of#songs#is#detailed
Expressions#of#the#angels:#there#were#music#books#at#the#time#that#
instructed#you#to#make#a#specific#face#to#get#the#sound#of#a#specific#note,#so#
scholars#have#(hypothetically)#been#able#to#put#together#what#the#angels#are#
singing
Then#we#have#Adam#and#Eve#on#the#outmost#left#and#right#panels#
respectively
Nakedness#is#quite#striking#compared#to#opulence#and#splendour#of#the#rest#
of#the#image#-differentiated#between#the#earthly#and#heavenly#realm
Eve#has#an#extended#belly-suggesting#that#it#would#have#been#drawn#from#a#
human#model#-depicting#the#way#an#actual#body#looks
Adam's#foot#comes#out#into#our#world
Eve#holds#an#orange,#not#an#apple
Can#see#the#story#of#Cain#and#Able#above#Adam#and#Eve
Upper$Register
Desire#to#forgive,#desire#to#save#our#souls
Willing#to#send#his#son#to#earth#to#die#for#our#sins
Theme#of#the#interior#of#the#Ghent#Altarpiece#-the#redemptive#power#of#God
Despite#having#5#individual#panels,#the#composition#feels#united#because#it#
shares#the#same#landscape
Central#Panel:#Representation#on#a#high#altar#of#the#Lamb#of#God#-symbolizes#
Christ#-bleeding#into#the#chalice
Surrounding#him#are#angels#holding#various#objects#that#come#from#the#
Crucifixion:#Crown#of#thorns,#whips,#the#cross,#the#column#where#he#was#
flagellated
Popes,#priests,#warriors#and#important#contemporary#faces#move#towards#
the#central#panel#to#partake#in#the#redemption
The#artists#have#the#ability#to#provide#both#a#microscopic#and#
telescopic#vision#in#one#-type#of#vision#that#is#not#possible#for#us#
humans#to#take#in#all#at#once#-a#vision#that#is#only#available#for#God
Notice#the#detail#in#representation#of#the#natural#world#-every#single#leaf#
and#flower#is#individually#detailed,#we#can#also#see#the#cathedral#in#the#
background#where#not#a#single#window#is#out#of#place
Lower$Register
Lecture'7'Week'5
Tuesday,# February# 9,#2016
7:42#AM
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The$Renaissance$in$the$North
We#will#now#be#looking#representative#examples#of#different#types#of#objects#
and#different#varieties#and#genres#that#emerged#from#these#periods
Purpose:#To#provoke#sub-discussions#within#the#theme#of#the#Renaissance#in#
the#North
Discussion#of#the#renaissance#in#the#North#is#problematic/limited#as#
compared#to#discussions#in#Florence#or#Italy#-largely#due#to#the#fact#that#not#
many#objects#from#these#regions#have#survived,#they#were#destroyed#in#wars#
and#bombing
Art#history#tends#to#privilege#Italian#examples#from#the#15th#and#16th#
Centuries
There#were#a#lot#of#interactions#between#the#North#and#the#South,#and#
Italian#artists#were#often#greatly#influenced#by#what#was#happening#in#the#
North
Botticelli# not#only#looked#into#vases#from#the#medieval#period,#but#also#the#
tapestry#traditions#from#the#North
These#4#regions#are#known#as#the#North#because#they#were#ruled#by#
the#Dukes#of#Burgundy#during#the#late#14th,#early#15th#centuries
They#were#the#most#powerful#political# force#in#Northern#Europe#during#
that#period
Bruges#would#have#been#one#of#the#major#centres#in#all#of#Europe#for#
shipping#and#trading#-would#have#had#the#power#and#economic#
strength#to#rival#places#like#Venice#and#Florence
Geographical$focus:Belgium,#the#Netherlands,#part#of#England,#and#Eastern#
France#is#what#is#defined#as#the#North
Terms
They#were#powerful#political#unit
Court#was#mobile,#art#produced#tended#to#be#smaller#so#it#could#be#moved#
as#needed
Dukes$of$Burgundy
name#given#to#a#series#of#wars#which#had#dramatic#impact#on#politics#and#
finance#
War#between#kingdom#of#England#and#Kingdom#of#France,#who#were#fighting#
to#expand#territory
Put#an#end#to#the#grand#scale#gothic#construction#that#was#taking#place#in#
the#North#during#the#Medieval#period,#instead#there#are#smaller#scale#artistic#
productions
Hundred$Years'$War$(1337-1453)
Our#largest#example#from#the#north#because#we#have#the#most#surviving#
examples#available
Will#also#be#used#to#introduce#an#important#invention#or#development:#
Painting$in$Oil,#transformed#the#way#objects#could#be#made,#and#how#they#
eventually#looked
Painted$Alter$Piece
Mobile#painted#objects#were#traditionally#done#in#tempera
Particularly#popular#in#Italy#and#throughout#Europe#in#the#Medieval#period,#
14th#and#early#15th#centuries
Way#of#painting#where#egg#yolk#is#the#binding#agent#which#holds#the#colour#
pigments#onto#the#surface
dries#quickly,#cant#store#mixed#colours;#have#to#mix#in#small#amounts#
and#apply#very#quickly,#cannot#blend#colours,#
Has#a#number#of#limitations:
Flat#look#to#paintings
Wood#tends#to#be#very#absorbent#so#artist#has#to#prepare#the#wood#by#
applying#a#layer#of#gesso#so#that#the#wood#doesn't#absorb#all#the#
expensive#pigment#
Overall#a#very#labour-intensive#process
"Ultramarine"#comes#from#the#Latin#word#"Ultramarinus"#-
on#the#other#side#of#the#ocean
Lapis#Lazuli:#A#mineral#from#which#Ultramarine#Blue#was#derived#
from,#at#the#time#it#was#found#only#in#(what#is#modern-day)
Afghanistan
§
Pigments#would#come#from#natural#minerals,#plants,#or#animals
Traditionally#they#were#tempera#on#(wood)#panel.#
Tempera
Drastic#departure#from#the#way#art#was#normally#produced
Was#used#as#early#as#the#12th#Century#in#Europe,#but#wasn't#fully#
incorporated#until#about#15th#century
Several#factors#led#to#artists#learning#about#the#flexibility#and#versatility#of#oil#
vs.#Tempera
Dries#very#slowly:#1-3#days
Can#apply#very#thin#layer#of#colour#then#build#it#up#on#a#surface#in#a#
way#that#was#not#possible#with#tempera
Can#add#colour,#manipulate#depth#and#texture,#and#add#glazes
Use#of#oil#allowed#for#more#flexibility
Oil$Painting$
Polyptychs
Tableaux(Vivants
Karl$van$Mander
Grisaille
Hubert#and#Jan#Van#Eyck: Ghent$Altarpiece
1432,#Cathedral#of#St.#Bavo,#Ghent,#Oil#on#Panel
Monumental#Freestanding#altarpiece
One#of#the#most#characteristic#artistic#outputs#of#the#Northern#Renaissance
In#virtue#of#a#Polyptych:#an#altarpiece# that#is#hinged#in#multiple#spaces#and#has#
multiple#panels#and#reliefs#when#it#is#opened
Upon#completion,#the#altarpiece#was#famous
1458:#the#Duke#of#Burgundy#(Philip#the#Good)#visited#the#city#of#Ghent#to#see#the#
altarpiece.#To#celebrate# his#visit,#the#townspeople#gathered#on#the#streets#and#put#
on#a#Tableau(Vivant (living#image);#dressed#up#as#characters#in#the#altarpiece,#to#
greet#him
Karel$van$Mander was#a#16th#century#artist#and#art#historian,#wrote#about#
the#Ghent#Altarpiece#as#being#one#of#the#definitive#works#of#the#period#that#
shaped#the#way#artists#paint#and#practice#art#over#the#course#of#the#next#few#
100#years
The#altarpiece# also#established#scholarship#from#the#16th#century
15#ft#across#and#11#ft#high#when#open
The#frame#that#is#lost#reported#the#date#of#completion#and#the#name#of#who#
commissioned#it
The#Donor#was#appointed#magistrate#shortly#after#this#piece#was#completed
Commissioned#to#be#placed#in#a#private#chapel#with#political# gain#in#mind
Closed#View
3#Registers
4#Niches#depicting#representations#of#prophets#and#sibyls#who#foretold#the#
coming#of#Christ
Top$Register
4#Panels:#Angel#Gabriel#on#the#extreme#left#and#Virgin#Mary#and#the#
Holy#Spirit#on#the#Far#Right,#2#unoccupied#(by#bodies)#panels#that#
separate#the#2#figures#-artists#used#these#panels#to#depict#a#cityscape#
in#the#background,#scholars#do#not#know#where#this#view#is,#believed#
to#be#out#of#their#studio
Included#still-life#compositions
Attributes#of#Annunciation#included:#Lilies#to#depict#the#purity#and#
virginity#of#Mary,#Interrupted#reading#the#bible#underscores#her#piety#
and#devotion
Angel#Gabriel#addresses#Mary#(Hail#Mary)
§
Mary's#response#is#written#backwards#and#upside#down#-
not#for#viewers#but#rather#for#God#himself#to#read
Makes#us#aware#of#who#this#work#is#for
Mary#responds#with#(behold#the#handmaid#of#the#lord)#-
accepting#the#task#handed#to#her
§
Writing#on#the#panel:
Practice#of#writing#on#images#comes#from#the#Medeival#period#-
draws#attention#to#the#2-dimentionality#of#the#image
§
Draperies#of#the#figures#-no#suggestions#of#bodies#underneath:#
typical#of#Northern#Renaissance#painting#and#representations
§
Figures#are#too#big#for#the#room#they#are#positioned#in
§
Tensions#between#Medieval#traits#and#Renaissance#characteristics
Prophets#and#Sibyls#look#down#and#bare#witness#to#the#unfolding#of#
the#prophecy#they#foretold
The#Annunciation
Central$Register
3#Niche-like#structures#united#with#similar#architectures
The#fur#on#the#donor's#collar#-can#make#out#the#individual#hairs
§
Can#make#out#the#eyes#and#the#wrinkles#around#them
§
Ability#to#give#such#detail#cannot#happen#with#tempera
§
The#2#donors#are#depicted#in#red#and#with#life-like#detail
§
2#on#the#outer#side#are#believed#to#be#the#donor#and#his#wife-kneeling
St.#John#the#Baptist#and#John#the#Evangelist#are#in#centre
Type#of#painting#done#in#gray#tones#or#pigments#to#echo/mimic#
sculpture
§
Technique#often#used#on#exteriors#of#altarpieces# for#practical#
and#visual#reasons
§
An#altarpiece#like#this#would#be#closed#for#the#majority#of#the#
year,#would#only#be#open#on#feast#days#or#to#celebrate#big#
occasions
§
Depicted#in#a#technique#known#as#Grisaille
4#figures#represented
Lower$Register
adds#to#the#visual#splendour#of#the#interior
Candle#light#and#incense#that#burn#in#churches#would#damage#the#exterior#
colour,#so#they#used#muted#tones#to#preserve#the#pigment#for#the#interior
Exteriors#of#altarpieces#tend#to#be#represented#with#muted#colours#and#limited#
pigments
Interior#View
Centre:#Representation#of#God#the#father#-wearing#the#papal#crown,##and#an#
earthly#crown#sits#at#his#feet
Holding#a#scepter#-traditional#sign#of#power
Enthroned#-Mary#and#John#the#Baptist#on#either#side
Mary#is#crowned#-notice#the#attention#to#detail#on#the#jewels#and#colour
Both#Mary#and#John#are#shown#reading#the#bible#-referencing#word#of#God
On#either#side#of#Mary#and#John#we#have#choirs#of#angels,#singing#and#
making#music#-referencing#the#sounds#of#heaven#that#may#have#mimicked#
what#a#worshipper#would#hear#in#the#church#when#they#went#to#pray
Each#angel#has#a#separate#crown,#and#the#carving#of#the#stand#that#holds#the#
book#of#songs#is#detailed
Expressions#of#the#angels:#there#were#music#books#at#the#time#that#
instructed#you#to#make#a#specific#face#to#get#the#sound#of#a#specific#note,#so#
scholars#have#(hypothetically)#been#able#to#put#together#what#the#angels#are#
singing
Then#we#have#Adam#and#Eve#on#the#outmost#left#and#right#panels#
respectively
Nakedness#is#quite#striking#compared#to#opulence#and#splendour#of#the#rest#
of#the#image#-differentiated#between#the#earthly#and#heavenly#realm
Eve#has#an#extended#belly-suggesting#that#it#would#have#been#drawn#from#a#
human#model#-depicting#the#way#an#actual#body#looks
Adam's#foot#comes#out#into#our#world
Eve#holds#an#orange,#not#an#apple
Can#see#the#story#of#Cain#and#Able#above#Adam#and#Eve
Upper$Register
Desire#to#forgive,#desire#to#save#our#souls
Willing#to#send#his#son#to#earth#to#die#for#our#sins
Theme#of#the#interior#of#the#Ghent#Altarpiece#-the#redemptive#power#of#God
Despite#having#5#individual#panels,#the#composition#feels#united#because#it#
shares#the#same#landscape
Central#Panel:#Representation#on#a#high#altar#of#the#Lamb#of#God#-symbolizes#
Christ#-bleeding#into#the#chalice
Surrounding#him#are#angels#holding#various#objects#that#come#from#the#
Crucifixion:#Crown#of#thorns,#whips,#the#cross,#the#column#where#he#was#
flagellated
Popes,#priests,#warriors#and#important#contemporary#faces#move#towards#
the#central#panel#to#partake#in#the#redemption
The#artists#have#the#ability#to#provide#both#a#microscopic#and#
telescopic#vision#in#one#-type#of#vision#that#is#not#possible#for#us#
humans#to#take#in#all#at#once#-a#vision#that#is#only#available#for#God
Notice#the#detail#in#representation#of#the#natural#world#-every#single#leaf#
and#flower#is#individually#detailed,#we#can#also#see#the#cathedral#in#the#
background#where#not#a#single#window#is#out#of#place
Lower$Register
Lecture'7'Week'5
Tuesday,# February# 9,#2016 7:42#AM
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The$Renaissance$in$the$North
We#will#now#be#looking#representative#examples#of#different#types#of#objects#
and#different#varieties#and#genres#that#emerged#from#these#periods
Purpose:#To#provoke#sub-discussions#within#the#theme#of#the#Renaissance#in#
the#North
Discussion#of#the#renaissance#in#the#North#is#problematic/limited#as#
compared#to#discussions#in#Florence#or#Italy#-largely#due#to#the#fact#that#not#
many#objects#from#these#regions#have#survived,#they#were#destroyed#in#wars#
and#bombing
Art#history#tends#to#privilege#Italian#examples#from#the#15th#and#16th#
Centuries
There#were#a#lot#of#interactions#between#the#North#and#the#South,#and#
Italian#artists#were#often#greatly#influenced#by#what#was#happening#in#the#
North
Botticelli# not#only#looked#into#vases#from#the#medieval#period,#but#also#the#
tapestry#traditions#from#the#North
These#4#regions#are#known#as#the#North#because#they#were#ruled#by#
the#Dukes#of#Burgundy#during#the#late#14th,#early#15th#centuries
They#were#the#most#powerful#political# force#in#Northern#Europe#during#
that#period
Bruges#would#have#been#one#of#the#major#centres#in#all#of#Europe#for#
shipping#and#trading#-would#have#had#the#power#and#economic#
strength#to#rival#places#like#Venice#and#Florence
Geographical$focus:Belgium,#the#Netherlands,#part#of#England,#and#Eastern#
France#is#what#is#defined#as#the#North
Terms
They#were#powerful#political#unit
Court#was#mobile,#art#produced#tended#to#be#smaller#so#it#could#be#moved#
as#needed
Dukes$of$Burgundy
name#given#to#a#series#of#wars#which#had#dramatic#impact#on#politics#and#
finance#
War#between#kingdom#of#England#and#Kingdom#of#France,#who#were#fighting#
to#expand#territory
Put#an#end#to#the#grand#scale#gothic#construction#that#was#taking#place#in#
the#North#during#the#Medieval#period,#instead#there#are#smaller#scale#artistic#
productions
Hundred$Years'$War$(1337-1453)
Our#largest#example#from#the#north#because#we#have#the#most#surviving#
examples#available
Will#also#be#used#to#introduce#an#important#invention#or#development:#
Painting$in$Oil,#transformed#the#way#objects#could#be#made,#and#how#they#
eventually#looked
Painted$Alter$Piece
Mobile#painted#objects#were#traditionally#done#in#tempera
Particularly#popular#in#Italy#and#throughout#Europe#in#the#Medieval#period,#
14th#and#early#15th#centuries
Way#of#painting#where#egg#yolk#is#the#binding#agent#which#holds#the#colour#
pigments#onto#the#surface
dries#quickly,#cant#store#mixed#colours;#have#to#mix#in#small#amounts#
and#apply#very#quickly,#cannot#blend#colours,#
Has#a#number#of#limitations:
Flat#look#to#paintings
Wood#tends#to#be#very#absorbent#so#artist#has#to#prepare#the#wood#by#
applying#a#layer#of#gesso#so#that#the#wood#doesn't#absorb#all#the#
expensive#pigment#
Overall#a#very#labour-intensive#process
"Ultramarine"#comes#from#the#Latin#word#"Ultramarinus"#-
on#the#other#side#of#the#ocean
Lapis#Lazuli:#A#mineral#from#which#Ultramarine#Blue#was#derived#
from,#at#the#time#it#was#found#only#in#(what#is#modern-day)
Afghanistan
§
Pigments#would#come#from#natural#minerals,#plants,#or#animals
Traditionally#they#were#tempera#on#(wood)#panel.#
Tempera
Drastic#departure#from#the#way#art#was#normally#produced
Was#used#as#early#as#the#12th#Century#in#Europe,#but#wasn't#fully#
incorporated#until#about#15th#century
Several#factors#led#to#artists#learning#about#the#flexibility#and#versatility#of#oil#
vs.#Tempera
Dries#very#slowly:#1-3#days
Can#apply#very#thin#layer#of#colour#then#build#it#up#on#a#surface#in#a#
way#that#was#not#possible#with#tempera
Can#add#colour,#manipulate#depth#and#texture,#and#add#glazes
Use#of#oil#allowed#for#more#flexibility
Oil$Painting$
Polyptychs
Tableaux(Vivants
Karl$van$Mander
Grisaille
Hubert#and#Jan#Van#Eyck: Ghent$Altarpiece
1432,#Cathedral#of#St.#Bavo,#Ghent,#Oil#on#Panel
Monumental#Freestanding#altarpiece
One#of#the#most#characteristic#artistic#outputs#of#the#Northern#Renaissance
In#virtue#of#a#Polyptych:#an#altarpiece# that#is#hinged#in#multiple#spaces#and#has#
multiple#panels#and#reliefs#when#it#is#opened
Upon#completion,#the#altarpiece#was#famous
1458:#the#Duke#of#Burgundy#(Philip#the#Good)#visited#the#city#of#Ghent#to#see#the#
altarpiece.#To#celebrate# his#visit,#the#townspeople#gathered#on#the#streets#and#put#
on#a#Tableau(Vivant (living#image);#dressed#up#as#characters#in#the#altarpiece,#to#
greet#him
Karel$van$Mander was#a#16th#century#artist#and#art#historian,#wrote#about#
the#Ghent#Altarpiece#as#being#one#of#the#definitive#works#of#the#period#that#
shaped#the#way#artists#paint#and#practice#art#over#the#course#of#the#next#few#
100#years
The#altarpiece# also#established#scholarship#from#the#16th#century
15#ft#across#and#11#ft#high#when#open
The#frame#that#is#lost#reported#the#date#of#completion#and#the#name#of#who#
commissioned#it
The#Donor#was#appointed#magistrate#shortly#after#this#piece#was#completed
Commissioned#to#be#placed#in#a#private#chapel#with#political# gain#in#mind
Closed#View
3#Registers
4#Niches#depicting#representations#of#prophets#and#sibyls#who#foretold#the#
coming#of#Christ
Top$Register
4#Panels:#Angel#Gabriel#on#the#extreme#left#and#Virgin#Mary#and#the#
Holy#Spirit#on#the#Far#Right,#2#unoccupied#(by#bodies)#panels#that#
separate#the#2#figures#-artists#used#these#panels#to#depict#a#cityscape#
in#the#background,#scholars#do#not#know#where#this#view#is,#believed#
to#be#out#of#their#studio
Included#still-life#compositions
Attributes#of#Annunciation#included:#Lilies#to#depict#the#purity#and#
virginity#of#Mary,#Interrupted#reading#the#bible#underscores#her#piety#
and#devotion
Angel#Gabriel#addresses#Mary#(Hail#Mary)
§
Mary's#response#is#written#backwards#and#upside#down#-
not#for#viewers#but#rather#for#God#himself#to#read
Makes#us#aware#of#who#this#work#is#for
Mary#responds#with#(behold#the#handmaid#of#the#lord)#-
accepting#the#task#handed#to#her
§
Writing#on#the#panel:
Practice#of#writing#on#images#comes#from#the#Medeival#period#-
draws#attention#to#the#2-dimentionality#of#the#image
§
Draperies#of#the#figures#-no#suggestions#of#bodies#underneath:#
typical#of#Northern#Renaissance#painting#and#representations
§
Figures#are#too#big#for#the#room#they#are#positioned#in
§
Tensions#between#Medieval#traits#and#Renaissance#characteristics
Prophets#and#Sibyls#look#down#and#bare#witness#to#the#unfolding#of#
the#prophecy#they#foretold
The#Annunciation
Central$Register
3#Niche-like#structures#united#with#similar#architectures
The#fur#on#the#donor's#collar#-can#make#out#the#individual#hairs
§
Can#make#out#the#eyes#and#the#wrinkles#around#them
§
Ability#to#give#such#detail#cannot#happen#with#tempera
§
The#2#donors#are#depicted#in#red#and#with#life-like#detail
§
2#on#the#outer#side#are#believed#to#be#the#donor#and#his#wife-kneeling
St.#John#the#Baptist#and#John#the#Evangelist#are#in#centre
Type#of#painting#done#in#gray#tones#or#pigments#to#echo/mimic#
sculpture
§
Technique#often#used#on#exteriors#of#altarpieces# for#practical#
and#visual#reasons
§
An#altarpiece#like#this#would#be#closed#for#the#majority#of#the#
year,#would#only#be#open#on#feast#days#or#to#celebrate#big#
occasions
§
Depicted#in#a#technique#known#as#Grisaille
4#figures#represented
Lower$Register
adds#to#the#visual#splendour#of#the#interior
Candle#light#and#incense#that#burn#in#churches#would#damage#the#exterior#
colour,#so#they#used#muted#tones#to#preserve#the#pigment#for#the#interior
Exteriors#of#altarpieces#tend#to#be#represented#with#muted#colours#and#limited#
pigments
Interior#View
Centre:#Representation#of#God#the#father#-wearing#the#papal#crown,##and#an#
earthly#crown#sits#at#his#feet
Holding#a#scepter#-traditional#sign#of#power
Enthroned#-Mary#and#John#the#Baptist#on#either#side
Mary#is#crowned#-notice#the#attention#to#detail#on#the#jewels#and#colour
Both#Mary#and#John#are#shown#reading#the#bible#-referencing#word#of#God
On#either#side#of#Mary#and#John#we#have#choirs#of#angels,#singing#and#
making#music#-referencing#the#sounds#of#heaven#that#may#have#mimicked#
what#a#worshipper#would#hear#in#the#church#when#they#went#to#pray
Each#angel#has#a#separate#crown,#and#the#carving#of#the#stand#that#holds#the#
book#of#songs#is#detailed
Expressions#of#the#angels:#there#were#music#books#at#the#time#that#
instructed#you#to#make#a#specific#face#to#get#the#sound#of#a#specific#note,#so#
scholars#have#(hypothetically)#been#able#to#put#together#what#the#angels#are#
singing
Then#we#have#Adam#and#Eve#on#the#outmost#left#and#right#panels#
respectively
Nakedness#is#quite#striking#compared#to#opulence#and#splendour#of#the#rest#
of#the#image#-differentiated#between#the#earthly#and#heavenly#realm
Eve#has#an#extended#belly-suggesting#that#it#would#have#been#drawn#from#a#
human#model#-depicting#the#way#an#actual#body#looks
Adam's#foot#comes#out#into#our#world
Eve#holds#an#orange,#not#an#apple
Can#see#the#story#of#Cain#and#Able#above#Adam#and#Eve
Upper$Register
Desire#to#forgive,#desire#to#save#our#souls
Willing#to#send#his#son#to#earth#to#die#for#our#sins
Theme#of#the#interior#of#the#Ghent#Altarpiece#-the#redemptive#power#of#God
Despite#having#5#individual#panels,#the#composition#feels#united#because#it#
shares#the#same#landscape
Central#Panel:#Representation#on#a#high#altar#of#the#Lamb#of#God#-symbolizes#
Christ#-bleeding#into#the#chalice
Surrounding#him#are#angels#holding#various#objects#that#come#from#the#
Crucifixion:#Crown#of#thorns,#whips,#the#cross,#the#column#where#he#was#
flagellated
Popes,#priests,#warriors#and#important#contemporary#faces#move#towards#
the#central#panel#to#partake#in#the#redemption
The#artists#have#the#ability#to#provide#both#a#microscopic#and#
telescopic#vision#in#one#-type#of#vision#that#is#not#possible#for#us#
humans#to#take#in#all#at#once#-a#vision#that#is#only#available#for#God
Notice#the#detail#in#representation#of#the#natural#world#-every#single#leaf#
and#flower#is#individually#detailed,#we#can#also#see#the#cathedral#in#the#
background#where#not#a#single#window#is#out#of#place
Lower$Register
Lecture'7'Week'5
Tuesday,# February# 9,#2016 7:42#AM
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