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Lecture 15

ARHI203 Lecture 15: Lecture 15 Week 9


Department
Art History
Course Code
ARHI 203
Professor
Anuradha Gobin
Lecture
15

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The$Protestant$Reformation$-For$the$first$time$in$Europe$we$have$religious$
segregation;$prior$to$the$Reformation$Western$Europe$was$united$under$Roman$
Catholicism
Lutherans
Calvinists
Anglicans
We$now$have$religious$diversity$on$top$of$the$political$maneuvering$taking$
place
We$now$have$various$sects$of$Christianity$because$of$the$Reformation
Roman$catholic$churches$were$white$washed$and$converted$into$Calvinist$
places
The$Dutch$Republic$was$a$Calvinist$society,$and$John$Calvin$did$not$believe$in$
the$use$of$religious$images$for$devotion
For$the$first$time$since$the$beginning$of$our$period$of$study,$we$are$looking$at$a$
place$and$a$time$where$the$church$is$no$longer$a$patron$of$art
Art$didn’t$stop$getting$produced$or$commissioned,$we$$now$have$new$types$of$
art$and$new$subjects
Comic$Culture$starts$to$emerge$as$well$as$the$use$of$realism$-realist$modes$of$
representation$to$present$what$is$in$fact$a$contrived$view$of$the$World
"Drinking$with$Abandon"
"In$folly,$time$stops"
"Nonsensical$banter"
"Throwing$roses$before$swine"
Some$of$the$puns$from$Jan$Steen's$"In$Luxury,$Look$Out"
Images$like$these$in$a$Calvinist$society$no$longer$served$a$devotional$purpose$
but$had$moralizing$elements$included$in$them
Dollhouse$of$Petronella$Oortmans$de$la$Court
and$domestic$spaces
Woman$buying$paintings$at$a$shop
Summary*of*Last*Lecture
Although$the$church$is$no$longer$a$major$patron$of$art,$its$production$
didn't$stop,$in$fact$-it$exploded
He$talks$of$the$affection$of$the$Dutch$towards$art
Butchers,$Bakers,$Cobblers$-people$from$the$working$class$-are$
surrounded$by$images,$not$just$the$rich$like$Arnolfini$or$Julius$II
Money$available$at$the$time$for$art$purchases$and$projects
Where$was$all$the$money$coming$from?
Important$points$from$the$Diary$of$Peter$Mundy$(a$traveler)$on$his$visit$to$
Amsterdam$in$1640
The$term$has$2$meanings$-it$can$refer$to$the$literal$"cabinet"$where$these$
treasures$are$kept,$or$the$whole$room$where$they$are$displayed$(and$
where$the$literal$"cabinet"$may$also$be$kept)
The$cabinets$were$intricate$and$ornate$in$themselves
They$were$very$much$show$pieces$for$new$objects$that$were$being$
collected
The$inside$contained$new$objects,$minerals,$animals,$plants
A$lot$of$time$being$spent$thinking$about$how$to$classify$all$these$new$
objects,$making$classification a$very$important$preoccupation$during$the$
17th$Century$-in$a$way$it$became$a$creative$pursuit$(classify$according$to$
region?$Properties?),$a$way$to$display$individual$identity,$
creativity,intelligence$ and$knowledge$about$the$world
Recall:$Cabinet*of*Curiosities: a$space$in$many$homes$where$art$and$new$
objects$coming$to$the$shores$of$Europe$were$being$collected$and$displayed
Jan$Van$De$Heyden,$Corner$of$a$Collector's$Room,$1712
The$above$is$an$example$of$a$room$cabinet$containing$a$cabinet
Painting$in$the$background
Very$expensive$carpets$in$the$foreground$that$would$have$come$from$
Persia$or$Turkey
Objects$of$learning$$-Cartographic$book,$the$Bible,$the$globe$-emphasis$
on$expanding$trade
The$bowl$on$top$of$the$literal$ cabinet$-would$have$come$from$Asia
Stuffed$armadillo$on$display
A$collector's$room$that$brings$together$objects$of$all$different$kinds
These$kinds$of$rooms$and$spaces$would$strive$to$bring$together$objects$made$by$
man$with$objects$from$the$natural$world
Collecting$was$still$ happening$in$Europe$before$the$17th$Century$as$well,$but$in$
very$small$and$elite$circles$
Collecting*Cultures:*Categorizing*and*Containing*Places*and*Things
Engraving$from$Ferrante$Imperato$Dell'Historia$ Naturale,$Anonymous$Engraver
This$is$an$Italian$example$of$a$very$wealthy$apothecary
We$can$see$a$display$of$the$natural$world
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century,$people$like$artists$can$amass$these$kinds$of$
collections
In$the$16th$Century,$in$the$history$of$collecting$prior$to$the$17th$Century,$these$
kinds$of$collections$were$limited$to$wealthy$merchants,$kings$and$queens
These$rooms$would$have$been$private$spaces,$only$very$few$people$would$have$
access$to$these$kinds$of$collections$that$were$amassed$in$homes
The$Dutch$are$moving$out$of$Europe$and$into$places$like$Africa,$East,$
Caribbean,$South$America
This$is$where$the$influx$of$things$and$objects$is$coming$from$
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century$in$the$Dutch$Republic,$we$have$an$expansion$
of$trade$and$colonial$networks
Dutch$East$India$Company$(VOC)
Dutch$West$India$Company$(WIC)
Amsterdam$became$an$important$space$for$the$offloading$of$these$
objects
People$from$across$Europe$would$go$to$Amsterdam$to$build$their$
collections$
Louis$XIV$of$France$had$someone$stationed$in$Amsterdam$
Due$to$the$expanding$networks,$Amsterdam$was$the$capital/headquarters$for$
the$VOC$and$the$WIC
For$the$local$residents,$the$exotic$and$the$foreign$becomes$local
Published$in$Naples,$1599
Rarities$seller$ enter$homes
Children$now$partake$$in$this$new$culture$of$collecting$ and$display$-something$
that$was$previously$reserved$for$members$of$the$upper$echelons$of$society
The$display$of$objects:$take$note$of$the$stuffed$crocodile$that$hangs$from$the$
ceiling$and$the$various$things$on$the$walls$that$would$have$come$from$Africa$
and$Asia
Iconography:$a$cupid$-drawing$our$attention$to$cupidity$-desire$to$possess,$and$
to$attempt$to$contain$the$world$in$one's$own$home
This$is$a$new$thing$because$for$the$first$time$average$people$can$purchase$these$
objects$and$have$them$in$our$homes$and$display$and$discuss$them,$
and$think$about$the$cultures$that$may$have$produced$them
Cornelis$de$Man,$Visit$of$the$Rarities$Seller,$Late$17th$Century
We$have$an$influx$of$material$-the$problem$now$is$how$it$should$be$valued$and$what$
is$worth$more$than$what
We$place$lot$of$value$on$something$that$is$rare$or$unique,$and$the$Dutch$were$no$
different
Case*Studies*of*Imported*Objects*and*How*they*shaped*the*17th*Century
Case*Study:*Tulips
Tulipmania:*1636-37
Tulips$come$from$Turkey,$they$were$first$introduced$to$Europe$in$1560's
They$were$initially$introduced$by$botanists,$and$were$brought$in$for$the$study$of$
their$medicinal$properties
End$of$the$16th$into$the$17th,$they$became$more$and$more$popular$among$all$
segments$of$society
When$purchasing$a$bulb,$we$do$not$know$what$the$flower$will$look$like
There$was$a$belief$that$what$you$did$to$cultivate$this$bulb$would$affect$
the$way$the$colour$and$variation$would$turn$out
The$Dutch$saw$the$Tulip$as$being$both$the$work$of$nature$as$well$as$the$work$of$
human$intervention
The$Semper*Augustus,$a$striped$tulip,$came$to$be$the$most$prized$possession$
and$the$most$valued$tulip$of$the$period
In$the$17th$century,$the$people$who$are$buying$tulip$bulbs$are$the$same$people$
building$cabinets$of$curiosities,$they$have$amassed$great$wealth$from$the$VOC$
and$the$WIC,$and$so$people$have$all$this$wealth$with$no$idea$how$to$manage$it
A$craze$for$tulips$happens$and$the$very$height$of$this$craze$takes$place$between$
1636$and$1637,$was$referred$to$as$"Tulipmania"
The$most$expensive$sale$of$a$tulip$-one$could$have$bought$a$mansion$in$
Amsterdam$with$that$same$amount$of$money
Tulips$and$tulip$bulbs$were$severely$overvalued
Tulipmania$developed$based$on$speculative$trading$-couldn't$know$what$would$
bloom$so$people$were$essentially$speculating$on$the$outcome
Semper$Augustus$became$the$most$prized$of$bulbs$and$people$began$to$paint$
portraits$of$it
1$bulb$was$traded$for$a$bed,$1000lbs$of$cheese,$and$some$bed$linen
People$would$barter$objects$for$tulip$bulbs
When$people$realize$ just$how$overpriced$these$bulbs$are,$they$began$selling$
them$-oversupply$resulted$in$the$crash$of$1637$that$decimated$the$fortunes$of$
many$people$-tulips$were$a$commodity$that$were$artificially$inflated$in$price
This$had$an$impact$on$art$production$and$the$trust$and$the$idea$of$making$
money$very$quickly$became$a$huge$concern
As$a$result$of$the$rise$and$crash$of$the$tulip$market,$people$lost$a$lot$of$money$
and$it$affected$the$kind$of$art$that$was$being$produced
Typically,$images$of$flowers$and$objects$of$everyday$life$would$have$been$
included$in$compositions$as$symbolic$attributes$for$people$like$Virgin$
Mary,$or$background$decoration$for$a$religious$subject
We$have$the$solidification$and$emergence$of$a$new$genre$of$art$
referred$to$as$Still*Life*Painting
§
In$17th$Century$Netherlands$under$Calvinism,$people$can't$paint$these$
types$of$images$anymore$-so$what$was$previously$in$the$background$
comes$to$the$foreground$and$really$becomes$the$subject$of$a$composition$
in$its$own$right
People$would$make$portraits$of$tulips,$which$contributed$to$a$new$genre$of$art$
called$Still*Life
Still*Life wouldn’t$just$be$about$flowers,$but$it$was$one$of$the$more$popular$still$
life$genres$in$the$Dutch$republic,$largely$attributed$to$this$fascination$with$
flowers$and,$in$particular,$tulips
Tulip$Portrait$-Semper$Augustus$-Page$from$a$17th$Century$Tulip$Catalogue,$
Anonymous$Artist
Note:$Thousands$of$these$were$produced$-Nothing$particularly$unique$about$
this$example
This$one$was$chosen$to$introduce$the$artist$-Rachel$Ruysch,$who$was$very$well-
known$and$well-regarded$at$the$time,$people$would$collect$ her$work$and$she$
specialized$in$flower$still$life$scenes
At$the$time,$her$paintings$would$sell$for$twice$as$much$as$what$a$painting$by$
Rembrandt$would$sell$for$
The$Semper$Augustus$has$a$prime$position$in$the$composition
-
It$is$about$durability$and$remembering$these$ephemeral$objects$that$only$bloom$
for$a$short$period$of$time
-
These$may$seem$realistic,$ but$they$are$very$much$about$deception$and$
artifice
We$have$flowers$that$come$from$different$parts$of$the$world$-making$this$
an$artificial$ illustration$of$this$bouquet$presented$for$visual$inspection
This$puts$forth$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$create$this$illusion
§
These$images$are$also$contrived$as$all$the$stems$and$branches$cannot$
possibly$be$contained$within$the$size$of$the$vase$that$holds$them
Flower$that$is$decaying$and$about$to$die$-warning$of$the$fleeting$
nature$of$life
§
Scholars$have$also$discussed$these$still$lifes$in$terms$of$the$Vanitas*
(memento*mori)*traditions
Notice:$the$unusual$thing$about$this$composition$is$that$all$these$flowers$are$
blooming$at$the$same$time$-not$all$of$these$plants$bloom$in$the$same$season
-
Side$note:$because$striped$tulips$were$so$prized,$we$see$an$increased$interest$in$
the$patterning$of$striped$things$(e.g.$shells)$-spawns$a$visual$interest$in$certain$
types$of$patterns$during$the$17th$century
Side$note:$the$irony$-the$stripes$on$the$prized$Semper$Augustus$were$caused$by$
a$virus.$in$Turkey$they$prized$the$solid$coloured$flowers
Almost$immediately$after$the$crash$of$tulipmania,$this$was$taken$up$in$visual$
culture,$literature,$theatre...$as$a$warning$$against$greed
Jan$Brueghel$the$Younger,$Satire$of$Tulip$Mania,$c.$1640
This$is$one$of$a$number$of$types$of$visual$culture$produced$directly$in$response$
to$tulipmania
We$have$all$the$tulip$speculators,$buyers,$and$sellers$pictured$as$foolish,$
unintelligent$monkeys
one$in$the$foreground$holds$a$list$of$the$types$of$tulips$and$the$prices$
associated$to$with$them.$He$is$inspecting$the$tulips$
A$pair$of$monkeys$demonstrating$and$perhaps$trying$to$sell$tulips$to$each$
other
One$who$has$just$purchased$or$about$to$sell$his$prized$Semper$Augustus$-
seen$with$his$money$bag
We$have$dressed$up$monkeys$having$a$business$meeting$-very$lavish$-
and$enjoying$the$mass$wealth
Jan$Brueghel$also$shows$us$the$downfalls$that$come$-we$can$see$a$
monkey$peeing$on$the$now$worthless$flowers,$and$we$can$see$all$the$
people$who$have$lost$their$money$being$taken$to$court$because$they've$
lost$their$homes$and$are$financially$responsible$for$things,$we$can$see$a$
monkey$sobbing.$In$the$background$we$can$see$a$monkey$who$has$died$
and$is$being$taken$to$his$burial
The$monkeys$have$been$given$human$characteristics:
All$the$messages$in$this$image$have$been$portrayed$in$a$comic$way,$but$they$are$
very$much$about$a$contemporary$issue$and$a$very$important$happening$that$
transformed$the$way$business$took$place,$the$way$people$trusted$each$other,$
and$the$way$they$valued$objects
Rachel$Ruysch,$Flower$Still$Life,$Second$Half$of$17th$Century,$Oil$on$Canvas
The$VOC$and$WIC$were$headquartered$in$Amsterdam
Tulips$came$to$Europe$through$trade$and$trade$relationships$(specifically,$
through$Turkey)
But$other$objects$and$peoples$came$to$Europe$because$of$forced$slavery,$
colonization,$and$various$other$reasons
The*Dutch*East*India*Company*(VOC)*and*the*Dutch*West*India*Company*(WIC)
Founded$at$the$turn$of$the$17th$Century
Became$one$of$the$most$powerful$trading$companies$in$all$ of$Europe$for$about$
200$years
The$Dutch$set$up$a$colony$in$Cape$Town$where$they$had$a$large$
provisions,$ships$would$stop$here$and$replenish.$They$would$then$
continue$East$where$they$could$get$pepper$and$tea
They$established$a$very$important$colony$called$Batavia$(present-day$$
Jakarta,$Indonesia)
The$Dutch$were$naming$places$according$to$their$Dutch$identity$-Batavia$
derives$from$the$Batavians,$who$the$Dutch$believed$were$their$ancestors
The$VOC$went$East$(Africa,$Mauritius,$Indonesia)
Since$the$Dutch$were$not$a$Monarchy$at$the$time,$there$was$no$royalty$that$
paid$money$to$send$ships$that$would$colonize$people$and$places$
Anyone$could$buy$a$share$in$a$VOC$ship$that$is$departing,$and$they$would$
get$a$percentage$of$what$the$ship$brought$back
People$got$very$wealthy$-the$wealth$was$coming$from$enslavement$and$
colonization$-which$was$also$fueling$the$production$of$images
On$average,$people$were$getting$a$400%$return$on$their$investment$in$the$
VOC
The$VOC$was$therefore$established$in$a$different$way$-it$was$funded$via$
shareholders
The$kinds$of$products$coming$back$impacted$what$was$highlighted$in$the$images$
being$produced
A$few$years$later,$because$of$the$profitability$of$the$VOC,$the$WIC$was$founded
VOC
Founded$in$1621$and$went$West
It$was$not$as$profitable$as$the$VOC,$but$still$quite$proftiable
It$went$to$places$like$the$West$Indies,$parts$of$South$America$(Surinam$today),$
Brazil,$and$then$later$they$also$went$to$North$America.$(the$Dutch$are$known$to$
have$founded$New$York,$it$was$originally$named$New$Amsterdam)
These$2$companies$are$very$powerful$in$the$17th$Century
All$the$colonization$is$for$things$that$are$not$necessary$-it$was$often$for$spices$
and$other$luxury$goods$-things$like$pepper$and$clove$motivated$trade,$but$these$
were$unknown$in$Europe$before$the$exploration
With$these$objects$and$spices$from$around$the$world,$another$type$of$still$life$
genre$emerged
Pieter$Claesz,$Still$Life$With$Turkey$Pie,$1627,$Oil$on$Panel
There$were$thousands$of$these$objects$being$produced
Pieter$Claesz$specialized$in$the$production$in$these$kinds$of$objects
These$images$bring$together$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$onto$one$
composition$(much$like$the$flowers)
Sheen$on$the$jug$-reflective$surfaces
Handle$of$the$knife$projects$out$into$our$space$
Shadow$of$plate$gives$a$sense$that$this$plate$can$fall$off
All$of$these$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$come$together$and$
were$conflated$through$visual$culture$-being$produced$en$masse$in$the$
17th$Century
Interest$in$artifice$a$d$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$demonstrate$his/her$talent
It$would$have$been$wrapped$in$newspaper$at$the$time
It$was$brought$back$by$the$VOC
Flavour$for$cooking
§
Believed$to$have$medicinal$properties
§
Used$as$a$preservation$techniques$for$food$and$medical$specimens
§
It$had$multiple$uses$in$the$17th$Century
The$most$expensive$object$on$this$table$is$the$pepper$in$the$bottom$right$corner
Sugar$was$also$an$important$novelty$at$the$time$-it$was$originally$from$the$East,$
but$was$taken$to$the$West$(the$Carribean$and$South$America)$where$it$was$
predominantly$produced$over$the$course$of$the$17th$and$18th$Centuries
Pieter$van$Roestraeten,$Still$life$with$Chinese$Tea$bowls,$c.$1670-80,$Oil$on$
Canvas
We$have$a$conflation$of$time$and$space$within$Still$Life$images
This$one$is$about$the$ceramics$that$come$from$China$
Interest$in$reflective$surfaces
The$2$tipped$bowls$that$are$pictured$here$-$$they$would$never$stay$in$
place.$It$is$as$if$they$are$about$to$roll$off$into$our$space
It$is$about$the$artist's$ability$to$manipulate$the$natural$and$artificial$world$
and$bring$things$together$in$a$canvas
Deception$and$artifice
We$can$see$sugar$crystals,$which$is$the$form$in$which$sugar$would$be$imported,$
or$as$sugar$loaves
The$objects$coming$back$to$Europe$are$often$because$of$the$subjugation$of$
indigenous$people$and$the$forces$transplantation$of$slaves,$which$$is$uncannily$
absent$from$these$lavish$still$life$images,$and$it$has$been$absent$from$the$
scholarship$about$Dutch$material
WIC
WIC
Dutch$captured$part$of$Brazil$from$the$Portuguese$in$the$17th$century
Recife$was$the$Capital
They$established$a$colony$in$Brazil$and Johann$Maurtis$van$Nassau ('The$
Brazilian')$was$tasked$with$being$governor
He$fashions$himself$like$a$king$-lives$quite$grandly$and$embarks$on$a$building$
campaign$in$Recife
He$decided$to$rename$Recife$to$Maurtisstad
He$builds$himself$a$palace$with$elaborate$gardens:$Vrijberg$Palace$which$no$
longer$exists
On$his$ship$to$Brazil,$he$takes$a$team$of$scientists,$2$artists$-basically$a$team$of$
people$who$could$fulfill$all$his$requirements$in$establishing$the$new$colony$in$
Brazil
The$practice$ of$taking$scientists$and$artists$on$the$journey$to$new$lands$was$not$
unusual$-there$is$a$need$to$accurately$record$and$accurately$classify$the$new$
plants,$specimens$and$other$new$encounters$that$take$place$in$the$new$lands
When$Europeans$first$started$to$explore$ the$world,$what$they$expected$to$find$
were$monsters$and$deformed$people$because$that$was$the$impression$given$to$
them$by$ancient$writers$-that$beyond$the$confinements$of$Europe$monstrous$
bodies$existed.$The$Dutch$did$not$find$monsters,$but$they$need$to$mark$
difference$in$new$ways$-we$will$consider$the$visual$strategies$being$employed$
in$the$marking$of$difference$between$Europeans$and$the$Native$Populations$
they$encounter$in$the$new$lands
The$main$hall$would$have$been$the$important$space$where$one$would$
greet$dignitaries$and$where$people$would$come$in$from$Europe$-very$
important$to$give$a$sense$grandeur
He$commissions$one$of$the$artists,$Albert*Eckhout,$to$paint$a$series$of$images$to$
decorate$the$main$hall$in$his$Vrijberg$palace
He$commissioned$5$pairs$(10$total)$of$images$that$hung$along$each$wall$in$the$
main$hallway
In$these$images,$the$bodies$and$the$people$that$are$depicted$are$being$shown$
very$much$like$the$commodities$and$objects$that$populate$still$life$compositions
(5th$pair$is$still$life$of$Brazilian$Fruits)
Case*Study:*Brazil
Lecture'15'Week'9
Thursday,$March$17,$2016
8:00$AM

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The$Protestant$Reformation$-For$the$first$time$in$Europe$we$have$religious$
segregation;$prior$to$the$Reformation$Western$Europe$was$united$under$Roman$
Catholicism
Lutherans
Calvinists
Anglicans
We$now$have$religious$diversity$on$top$of$the$political$maneuvering$taking$
place
We$now$have$various$sects$of$Christianity$because$of$the$Reformation
Part$of$this$doctrine$sparked$the$Iconoclastic*Riots of$the$16th$Century
Roman$catholic$churches$were$white$washed$and$converted$into$Calvinist$
places
The$Dutch$Republic$was$a$Calvinist$society,$and$John$Calvin$did$not$believe$in$
the$use$of$religious$images$for$devotion
For$the$first$time$since$the$beginning$of$our$period$of$study,$we$are$looking$at$a$
place$and$a$time$where$the$church$is$no$longer$a$patron$of$art
Art$didn’t$stop$getting$produced$or$commissioned,$we$$now$have$new$types$of$
art$and$new$subjects
Comic$Culture$starts$to$emerge$as$well$as$the$use$of$realism$-realist$modes$of$
representation$to$present$what$is$in$fact$a$contrived$view$of$the$World
"Drinking$with$Abandon"
"In$folly,$time$stops"
"Nonsensical$banter"
The$woman$was$seen$as$the$"key"$to$the$household$falling$apart$-
provoking$consideration$of$$women$and$their$role$and$place$in$the$17th$
Century
"Throwing$roses$before$swine"
Some$of$the$puns$from$Jan$Steen's$"In$Luxury,$Look$Out"
Images$like$these$in$a$Calvinist$society$no$longer$served$a$devotional$purpose$
but$had$moralizing$elements$included$in$them
Dollhouse$of$Petronella$Oortmans$de$la$Court
Woman$buying$paintings$at$a$shop
Summary*of*Last*Lecture
He$talks$of$the$affection$of$the$Dutch$towards$art
Money$available$at$the$time$for$art$purchases$and$projects
Important$points$from$the$Diary$of$Peter$Mundy$(a$traveler)$on$his$visit$to$
Amsterdam$in$1640
The$term$has$2$meanings$-it$can$refer$to$the$literal$"cabinet"$where$these$
treasures$are$kept,$or$the$whole$room$where$they$are$displayed$(and$
where$the$literal$"cabinet"$may$also$be$kept)
The$cabinets$were$intricate$and$ornate$in$themselves
The$inside$contained$new$objects,$minerals,$animals,$plants
A$lot$of$time$being$spent$thinking$about$how$to$classify$all$these$new$
objects,$making$classification a$very$important$preoccupation$during$the$
17th$Century$-in$a$way$it$became$a$creative$pursuit$(classify$according$to$
region?$Properties?),$a$way$to$display$individual$identity,$
creativity,intelligence$ and$knowledge$about$the$world
Recall:$Cabinet*of*Curiosities: a$space$in$many$homes$where$art$and$new$
objects$coming$to$the$shores$of$Europe$were$being$collected$and$displayed
Jan$Van$De$Heyden,$Corner$of$a$Collector's$Room,$1712
The$above$is$an$example$of$a$room$cabinet$containing$a$cabinet
Painting$in$the$background
Very$expensive$carpets$in$the$foreground$that$would$have$come$from$
Persia$or$Turkey
Objects$of$learning$$-Cartographic$book,$the$Bible,$the$globe$-emphasis$
on$expanding$trade
The$bowl$on$top$of$the$literal$ cabinet$-would$have$come$from$Asia
Stuffed$armadillo$on$display
A$collector's$room$that$brings$together$objects$of$all$different$kinds
These$kinds$of$rooms$and$spaces$would$strive$to$bring$together$objects$made$by$
man$with$objects$from$the$natural$world
Collecting$was$still$ happening$in$Europe$before$the$17th$Century$as$well,$but$in$
very$small$and$elite$circles$
Collecting*Cultures:*Categorizing*and*Containing*Places*and*Things
Engraving$from$Ferrante$Imperato$Dell'Historia$ Naturale,$Anonymous$Engraver
This$is$an$Italian$example$of$a$very$wealthy$apothecary
We$can$see$a$display$of$the$natural$world
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century,$people$like$artists$can$amass$these$kinds$of$
collections
In$the$16th$Century,$in$the$history$of$collecting$prior$to$the$17th$Century,$these$
kinds$of$collections$were$limited$to$wealthy$merchants,$kings$and$queens
These$rooms$would$have$been$private$spaces,$only$very$few$people$would$have$
access$to$these$kinds$of$collections$that$were$amassed$in$homes
The$Dutch$are$moving$out$of$Europe$and$into$places$like$Africa,$East,$
Caribbean,$South$America
This$is$where$the$influx$of$things$and$objects$is$coming$from$
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century$in$the$Dutch$Republic,$we$have$an$expansion$
of$trade$and$colonial$networks
Dutch$East$India$Company$(VOC)
Dutch$West$India$Company$(WIC)
Amsterdam$became$an$important$space$for$the$offloading$of$these$
objects
People$from$across$Europe$would$go$to$Amsterdam$to$build$their$
collections$
Louis$XIV$of$France$had$someone$stationed$in$Amsterdam$
Due$to$the$expanding$networks,$Amsterdam$was$the$capital/headquarters$for$
the$VOC$and$the$WIC
For$the$local$residents,$the$exotic$and$the$foreign$becomes$local
Published$in$Naples,$1599
Rarities$seller$ enter$homes
Children$now$partake$$in$this$new$culture$of$collecting$ and$display$-something$
that$was$previously$reserved$for$members$of$the$upper$echelons$of$society
The$display$of$objects:$take$note$of$the$stuffed$crocodile$that$hangs$from$the$
ceiling$and$the$various$things$on$the$walls$that$would$have$come$from$Africa$
and$Asia
Iconography:$a$cupid$-drawing$our$attention$to$cupidity$-desire$to$possess,$and$
to$attempt$to$contain$the$world$in$one's$own$home
This$is$a$new$thing$because$for$the$first$time$average$people$can$purchase$these$
objects$and$have$them$in$our$homes$and$display$and$discuss$them,$
and$think$about$the$cultures$that$may$have$produced$them
Cornelis$de$Man,$Visit$of$the$Rarities$Seller,$Late$17th$Century
We$have$an$influx$of$material$-the$problem$now$is$how$it$should$be$valued$and$what$
is$worth$more$than$what
We$place$lot$of$value$on$something$that$is$rare$or$unique,$and$the$Dutch$were$no$
different
Case*Studies*of*Imported*Objects*and*How*they*shaped*the*17th*Century
Case*Study:*Tulips
Tulipmania:*1636-37
Tulips$come$from$Turkey,$they$were$first$introduced$to$Europe$in$1560's
They$were$initially$introduced$by$botanists,$and$were$brought$in$for$the$study$of$
their$medicinal$properties
End$of$the$16th$into$the$17th,$they$became$more$and$more$popular$among$all$
segments$of$society
When$purchasing$a$bulb,$we$do$not$know$what$the$flower$will$look$like
There$was$a$belief$that$what$you$did$to$cultivate$this$bulb$would$affect$
the$way$the$colour$and$variation$would$turn$out
The$Dutch$saw$the$Tulip$as$being$both$the$work$of$nature$as$well$as$the$work$of$
human$intervention
The$Semper*Augustus,$a$striped$tulip,$came$to$be$the$most$prized$possession$
and$the$most$valued$tulip$of$the$period
In$the$17th$century,$the$people$who$are$buying$tulip$bulbs$are$the$same$people$
building$cabinets$of$curiosities,$they$have$amassed$great$wealth$from$the$VOC$
and$the$WIC,$and$so$people$have$all$this$wealth$with$no$idea$how$to$manage$it
A$craze$for$tulips$happens$and$the$very$height$of$this$craze$takes$place$between$
1636$and$1637,$was$referred$to$as$"Tulipmania"
The$most$expensive$sale$of$a$tulip$-one$could$have$bought$a$mansion$in$
Amsterdam$with$that$same$amount$of$money
Tulips$and$tulip$bulbs$were$severely$overvalued
Tulipmania$developed$based$on$speculative$trading$-couldn't$know$what$would$
bloom$so$people$were$essentially$speculating$on$the$outcome
Semper$Augustus$became$the$most$prized$of$bulbs$and$people$began$to$paint$
portraits$of$it
1$bulb$was$traded$for$a$bed,$1000lbs$of$cheese,$and$some$bed$linen
People$would$barter$objects$for$tulip$bulbs
When$people$realize$ just$how$overpriced$these$bulbs$are,$they$began$selling$
them$-oversupply$resulted$in$the$crash$of$1637$that$decimated$the$fortunes$of$
many$people$-tulips$were$a$commodity$that$were$artificially$inflated$in$price
This$had$an$impact$on$art$production$and$the$trust$and$the$idea$of$making$
money$very$quickly$became$a$huge$concern
As$a$result$of$the$rise$and$crash$of$the$tulip$market,$people$lost$a$lot$of$money$
and$it$affected$the$kind$of$art$that$was$being$produced
Typically,$images$of$flowers$and$objects$of$everyday$life$would$have$been$
included$in$compositions$as$symbolic$attributes$for$people$like$Virgin$
Mary,$or$background$decoration$for$a$religious$subject
We$have$the$solidification$and$emergence$of$a$new$genre$of$art$
referred$to$as$Still*Life*Painting
§
In$17th$Century$Netherlands$under$Calvinism,$people$can't$paint$these$
types$of$images$anymore$-so$what$was$previously$in$the$background$
comes$to$the$foreground$and$really$becomes$the$subject$of$a$composition$
in$its$own$right
People$would$make$portraits$of$tulips,$which$contributed$to$a$new$genre$of$art$
called$Still*Life
Still*Life wouldn’t$just$be$about$flowers,$but$it$was$one$of$the$more$popular$still$
life$genres$in$the$Dutch$republic,$largely$attributed$to$this$fascination$with$
flowers$and,$in$particular,$tulips
Tulip$Portrait$-Semper$Augustus$-Page$from$a$17th$Century$Tulip$Catalogue,$
Anonymous$Artist
Note:$Thousands$of$these$were$produced$-Nothing$particularly$unique$about$
this$example
This$one$was$chosen$to$introduce$the$artist$-Rachel$Ruysch,$who$was$very$well-
known$and$well-regarded$at$the$time,$people$would$collect$ her$work$and$she$
specialized$in$flower$still$life$scenes
At$the$time,$her$paintings$would$sell$for$twice$as$much$as$what$a$painting$by$
Rembrandt$would$sell$for$
The$Semper$Augustus$has$a$prime$position$in$the$composition
-
It$is$about$durability$and$remembering$these$ephemeral$objects$that$only$bloom$
for$a$short$period$of$time
-
These$may$seem$realistic,$ but$they$are$very$much$about$deception$and$
artifice
We$have$flowers$that$come$from$different$parts$of$the$world$-making$this$
an$artificial$ illustration$of$this$bouquet$presented$for$visual$inspection
This$puts$forth$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$create$this$illusion
§
These$images$are$also$contrived$as$all$the$stems$and$branches$cannot$
possibly$be$contained$within$the$size$of$the$vase$that$holds$them
Flower$that$is$decaying$and$about$to$die$-warning$of$the$fleeting$
nature$of$life
§
Scholars$have$also$discussed$these$still$lifes$in$terms$of$the$Vanitas*
(memento*mori)*traditions
Notice:$the$unusual$thing$about$this$composition$is$that$all$these$flowers$are$
blooming$at$the$same$time$-not$all$of$these$plants$bloom$in$the$same$season
-
Side$note:$because$striped$tulips$were$so$prized,$we$see$an$increased$interest$in$
the$patterning$of$striped$things$(e.g.$shells)$-spawns$a$visual$interest$in$certain$
types$of$patterns$during$the$17th$century
Side$note:$the$irony$-the$stripes$on$the$prized$Semper$Augustus$were$caused$by$
a$virus.$in$Turkey$they$prized$the$solid$coloured$flowers
Almost$immediately$after$the$crash$of$tulipmania,$this$was$taken$up$in$visual$
culture,$literature,$theatre...$as$a$warning$$against$greed
Jan$Brueghel$the$Younger,$Satire$of$Tulip$Mania,$c.$1640
This$is$one$of$a$number$of$types$of$visual$culture$produced$directly$in$response$
to$tulipmania
We$have$all$the$tulip$speculators,$buyers,$and$sellers$pictured$as$foolish,$
unintelligent$monkeys
one$in$the$foreground$holds$a$list$of$the$types$of$tulips$and$the$prices$
associated$to$with$them.$He$is$inspecting$the$tulips$
A$pair$of$monkeys$demonstrating$and$perhaps$trying$to$sell$tulips$to$each$
other
One$who$has$just$purchased$or$about$to$sell$his$prized$Semper$Augustus$-
seen$with$his$money$bag
We$have$dressed$up$monkeys$having$a$business$meeting$-very$lavish$-
and$enjoying$the$mass$wealth
Jan$Brueghel$also$shows$us$the$downfalls$that$come$-we$can$see$a$
monkey$peeing$on$the$now$worthless$flowers,$and$we$can$see$all$the$
people$who$have$lost$their$money$being$taken$to$court$because$they've$
lost$their$homes$and$are$financially$responsible$for$things,$we$can$see$a$
monkey$sobbing.$In$the$background$we$can$see$a$monkey$who$has$died$
and$is$being$taken$to$his$burial
The$monkeys$have$been$given$human$characteristics:
All$the$messages$in$this$image$have$been$portrayed$in$a$comic$way,$but$they$are$
very$much$about$a$contemporary$issue$and$a$very$important$happening$that$
transformed$the$way$business$took$place,$the$way$people$trusted$each$other,$
and$the$way$they$valued$objects
Rachel$Ruysch,$Flower$Still$Life,$Second$Half$of$17th$Century,$Oil$on$Canvas
The$VOC$and$WIC$were$headquartered$in$Amsterdam
Tulips$came$to$Europe$through$trade$and$trade$relationships$(specifically,$
through$Turkey)
But$other$objects$and$peoples$came$to$Europe$because$of$forced$slavery,$
colonization,$and$various$other$reasons
The*Dutch*East*India*Company*(VOC)*and*the*Dutch*West*India*Company*(WIC)
Founded$at$the$turn$of$the$17th$Century
Became$one$of$the$most$powerful$trading$companies$in$all$ of$Europe$for$about$
200$years
The$Dutch$set$up$a$colony$in$Cape$Town$where$they$had$a$large$
provisions,$ships$would$stop$here$and$replenish.$They$would$then$
continue$East$where$they$could$get$pepper$and$tea
They$established$a$very$important$colony$called$Batavia$(present-day$$
Jakarta,$Indonesia)
The$Dutch$were$naming$places$according$to$their$Dutch$identity$-Batavia$
derives$from$the$Batavians,$who$the$Dutch$believed$were$their$ancestors
The$VOC$went$East$(Africa,$Mauritius,$Indonesia)
Since$the$Dutch$were$not$a$Monarchy$at$the$time,$there$was$no$royalty$that$
paid$money$to$send$ships$that$would$colonize$people$and$places$
Anyone$could$buy$a$share$in$a$VOC$ship$that$is$departing,$and$they$would$
get$a$percentage$of$what$the$ship$brought$back
People$got$very$wealthy$-the$wealth$was$coming$from$enslavement$and$
colonization$-which$was$also$fueling$the$production$of$images
On$average,$people$were$getting$a$400%$return$on$their$investment$in$the$
VOC
The$VOC$was$therefore$established$in$a$different$way$-it$was$funded$via$
shareholders
The$kinds$of$products$coming$back$impacted$what$was$highlighted$in$the$images$
being$produced
A$few$years$later,$because$of$the$profitability$of$the$VOC,$the$WIC$was$founded
VOC
Founded$in$1621$and$went$West
It$was$not$as$profitable$as$the$VOC,$but$still$quite$proftiable
It$went$to$places$like$the$West$Indies,$parts$of$South$America$(Surinam$today),$
Brazil,$and$then$later$they$also$went$to$North$America.$(the$Dutch$are$known$to$
have$founded$New$York,$it$was$originally$named$New$Amsterdam)
These$2$companies$are$very$powerful$in$the$17th$Century
All$the$colonization$is$for$things$that$are$not$necessary$-it$was$often$for$spices$
and$other$luxury$goods$-things$like$pepper$and$clove$motivated$trade,$but$these$
were$unknown$in$Europe$before$the$exploration
With$these$objects$and$spices$from$around$the$world,$another$type$of$still$life$
genre$emerged
Pieter$Claesz,$Still$Life$With$Turkey$Pie,$1627,$Oil$on$Panel
There$were$thousands$of$these$objects$being$produced
Pieter$Claesz$specialized$in$the$production$in$these$kinds$of$objects
These$images$bring$together$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$onto$one$
composition$(much$like$the$flowers)
Sheen$on$the$jug$-reflective$surfaces
Handle$of$the$knife$projects$out$into$our$space$
Shadow$of$plate$gives$a$sense$that$this$plate$can$fall$off
All$of$these$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$come$together$and$
were$conflated$through$visual$culture$-being$produced$en$masse$in$the$
17th$Century
Interest$in$artifice$a$d$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$demonstrate$his/her$talent
It$would$have$been$wrapped$in$newspaper$at$the$time
It$was$brought$back$by$the$VOC
Flavour$for$cooking
§
Believed$to$have$medicinal$properties
§
Used$as$a$preservation$techniques$for$food$and$medical$specimens
§
It$had$multiple$uses$in$the$17th$Century
The$most$expensive$object$on$this$table$is$the$pepper$in$the$bottom$right$corner
Sugar$was$also$an$important$novelty$at$the$time$-it$was$originally$from$the$East,$
but$was$taken$to$the$West$(the$Carribean$and$South$America)$where$it$was$
predominantly$produced$over$the$course$of$the$17th$and$18th$Centuries
Pieter$van$Roestraeten,$Still$life$with$Chinese$Tea$bowls,$c.$1670-80,$Oil$on$
Canvas
We$have$a$conflation$of$time$and$space$within$Still$Life$images
This$one$is$about$the$ceramics$that$come$from$China$
Interest$in$reflective$surfaces
The$2$tipped$bowls$that$are$pictured$here$-$$they$would$never$stay$in$
place.$It$is$as$if$they$are$about$to$roll$off$into$our$space
It$is$about$the$artist's$ability$to$manipulate$the$natural$and$artificial$world$
and$bring$things$together$in$a$canvas
Deception$and$artifice
We$can$see$sugar$crystals,$which$is$the$form$in$which$sugar$would$be$imported,$
or$as$sugar$loaves
The$objects$coming$back$to$Europe$are$often$because$of$the$subjugation$of$
indigenous$people$and$the$forces$transplantation$of$slaves,$which$$is$uncannily$
absent$from$these$lavish$still$life$images,$and$it$has$been$absent$from$the$
scholarship$about$Dutch$material
WIC
WIC
Dutch$captured$part$of$Brazil$from$the$Portuguese$in$the$17th$century
Recife$was$the$Capital
They$established$a$colony$in$Brazil$and Johann$Maurtis$van$Nassau ('The$
Brazilian')$was$tasked$with$being$governor
He$fashions$himself$like$a$king$-lives$quite$grandly$and$embarks$on$a$building$
campaign$in$Recife
He$decided$to$rename$Recife$to$Maurtisstad
He$builds$himself$a$palace$with$elaborate$gardens:$Vrijberg$Palace$which$no$
longer$exists
On$his$ship$to$Brazil,$he$takes$a$team$of$scientists,$2$artists$-basically$a$team$of$
people$who$could$fulfill$all$his$requirements$in$establishing$the$new$colony$in$
Brazil
The$practice$ of$taking$scientists$and$artists$on$the$journey$to$new$lands$was$not$
unusual$-there$is$a$need$to$accurately$record$and$accurately$classify$the$new$
plants,$specimens$and$other$new$encounters$that$take$place$in$the$new$lands
When$Europeans$first$started$to$explore$ the$world,$what$they$expected$to$find$
were$monsters$and$deformed$people$because$that$was$the$impression$given$to$
them$by$ancient$writers$-that$beyond$the$confinements$of$Europe$monstrous$
bodies$existed.$The$Dutch$did$not$find$monsters,$but$they$need$to$mark$
difference$in$new$ways$-we$will$consider$the$visual$strategies$being$employed$
in$the$marking$of$difference$between$Europeans$and$the$Native$Populations$
they$encounter$in$the$new$lands
The$main$hall$would$have$been$the$important$space$where$one$would$
greet$dignitaries$and$where$people$would$come$in$from$Europe$-very$
important$to$give$a$sense$grandeur
He$commissions$one$of$the$artists,$Albert*Eckhout,$to$paint$a$series$of$images$to$
decorate$the$main$hall$in$his$Vrijberg$palace
He$commissioned$5$pairs$(10$total)$of$images$that$hung$along$each$wall$in$the$
main$hallway
In$these$images,$the$bodies$and$the$people$that$are$depicted$are$being$shown$
very$much$like$the$commodities$and$objects$that$populate$still$life$compositions
(5th$pair$is$still$life$of$Brazilian$Fruits)
Case*Study:*Brazil
Lecture'15'Week'9
Thursday,$March$17,$2016 8:00$AM

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

The$Protestant$Reformation$-For$the$first$time$in$Europe$we$have$religious$
segregation;$prior$to$the$Reformation$Western$Europe$was$united$under$Roman$
Catholicism
Lutherans
Calvinists
Anglicans
We$now$have$religious$diversity$on$top$of$the$political$maneuvering$taking$
place
We$now$have$various$sects$of$Christianity$because$of$the$Reformation
Part$of$this$doctrine$sparked$the$Iconoclastic*Riots of$the$16th$Century
Roman$catholic$churches$were$white$washed$and$converted$into$Calvinist$
places
The$Dutch$Republic$was$a$Calvinist$society,$and$John$Calvin$did$not$believe$in$
the$use$of$religious$images$for$devotion
For$the$first$time$since$the$beginning$of$our$period$of$study,$we$are$looking$at$a$
place$and$a$time$where$the$church$is$no$longer$a$patron$of$art
Art$didn’t$stop$getting$produced$or$commissioned,$we$$now$have$new$types$of$
art$and$new$subjects
Comic$Culture$starts$to$emerge$as$well$as$the$use$of$realism$-realist$modes$of$
representation$to$present$what$is$in$fact$a$contrived$view$of$the$World
"Drinking$with$Abandon"
"In$folly,$time$stops"
"Nonsensical$banter"
The$woman$was$seen$as$the$"key"$to$the$household$falling$apart$-
provoking$consideration$of$$women$and$their$role$and$place$in$the$17th$
Century
"Throwing$roses$before$swine"
Some$of$the$puns$from$Jan$Steen's$"In$Luxury,$Look$Out"
Images$like$these$in$a$Calvinist$society$no$longer$served$a$devotional$purpose$
but$had$moralizing$elements$included$in$them
Dollhouse$of$Petronella$Oortmans$de$la$Court
Women$could$purchase$objects$and$paintings$to$decorate$their$homes$
and$domestic$spaces
Woman$buying$paintings$at$a$shop
Summary*of*Last*Lecture
Although$the$church$is$no$longer$a$major$patron$of$art,$its$production$
didn't$stop,$in$fact$-it$exploded
He$talks$of$the$affection$of$the$Dutch$towards$art
Butchers,$Bakers,$Cobblers$-people$from$the$working$class$-are$
surrounded$by$images,$not$just$the$rich$like$Arnolfini$or$Julius$II
Money$available$at$the$time$for$art$purchases$and$projects
Where$was$all$the$money$coming$from?
Important$points$from$the$Diary$of$Peter$Mundy$(a$traveler)$on$his$visit$to$
Amsterdam$in$1640
The$term$has$2$meanings$-it$can$refer$to$the$literal$"cabinet"$where$these$
treasures$are$kept,$or$the$whole$room$where$they$are$displayed$(and$
where$the$literal$"cabinet"$may$also$be$kept)
The$cabinets$were$intricate$and$ornate$in$themselves
They$were$very$much$show$pieces$for$new$objects$that$were$being$
collected
The$inside$contained$new$objects,$minerals,$animals,$plants
A$lot$of$time$being$spent$thinking$about$how$to$classify$all$these$new$
objects,$making$classification a$very$important$preoccupation$during$the$
17th$Century$-in$a$way$it$became$a$creative$pursuit$(classify$according$to$
region?$Properties?),$a$way$to$display$individual$identity,$
creativity,intelligence$ and$knowledge$about$the$world
Recall:$Cabinet*of*Curiosities: a$space$in$many$homes$where$art$and$new$
objects$coming$to$the$shores$of$Europe$were$being$collected$and$displayed
Jan$Van$De$Heyden,$Corner$of$a$Collector's$Room,$1712
The$above$is$an$example$of$a$room$cabinet$containing$a$cabinet
Painting$in$the$background
Very$expensive$carpets$in$the$foreground$that$would$have$come$from$
Persia$or$Turkey
Objects$of$learning$$-Cartographic$book,$the$Bible,$the$globe$-emphasis$
on$expanding$trade
The$bowl$on$top$of$the$literal$ cabinet$-would$have$come$from$Asia
Stuffed$armadillo$on$display
A$collector's$room$that$brings$together$objects$of$all$different$kinds
These$kinds$of$rooms$and$spaces$would$strive$to$bring$together$objects$made$by$
man$with$objects$from$the$natural$world
Collecting$was$still$ happening$in$Europe$before$the$17th$Century$as$well,$but$in$
very$small$and$elite$circles$
Collecting*Cultures:*Categorizing*and*Containing*Places*and*Things
Engraving$from$Ferrante$Imperato$Dell'Historia$ Naturale,$Anonymous$Engraver
This$is$an$Italian$example$of$a$very$wealthy$apothecary
We$can$see$a$display$of$the$natural$world
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century,$people$like$artists$can$amass$these$kinds$of$
collections
In$the$16th$Century,$in$the$history$of$collecting$prior$to$the$17th$Century,$these$
kinds$of$collections$were$limited$to$wealthy$merchants,$kings$and$queens
These$rooms$would$have$been$private$spaces,$only$very$few$people$would$have$
access$to$these$kinds$of$collections$that$were$amassed$in$homes
The$Dutch$are$moving$out$of$Europe$and$into$places$like$Africa,$East,$
Caribbean,$South$America
This$is$where$the$influx$of$things$and$objects$is$coming$from$
As$we$move$into$the$17th$Century$in$the$Dutch$Republic,$we$have$an$expansion$
of$trade$and$colonial$networks
Dutch$East$India$Company$(VOC)
Dutch$West$India$Company$(WIC)
Amsterdam$became$an$important$space$for$the$offloading$of$these$
objects
People$from$across$Europe$would$go$to$Amsterdam$to$build$their$
collections$
Louis$XIV$of$France$had$someone$stationed$in$Amsterdam$
Due$to$the$expanding$networks,$Amsterdam$was$the$capital/headquarters$for$
the$VOC$and$the$WIC
For$the$local$residents,$the$exotic$and$the$foreign$becomes$local
Published$in$Naples,$1599
Rarities$seller$ enter$homes
Children$now$partake$$in$this$new$culture$of$collecting$ and$display$-something$
that$was$previously$reserved$for$members$of$the$upper$echelons$of$society
The$display$of$objects:$take$note$of$the$stuffed$crocodile$that$hangs$from$the$
ceiling$and$the$various$things$on$the$walls$that$would$have$come$from$Africa$
and$Asia
Iconography:$a$cupid$-drawing$our$attention$to$cupidity$-desire$to$possess,$and$
to$attempt$to$contain$the$world$in$one's$own$home
This$is$a$new$thing$because$for$the$first$time$average$people$can$purchase$these$
objects$and$have$them$in$our$homes$and$display$and$discuss$them,$
and$think$about$the$cultures$that$may$have$produced$them
Cornelis$de$Man,$Visit$of$the$Rarities$Seller,$Late$17th$Century
We$have$an$influx$of$material$-the$problem$now$is$how$it$should$be$valued$and$what$
is$worth$more$than$what
We$place$lot$of$value$on$something$that$is$rare$or$unique,$and$the$Dutch$were$no$
different
Case*Studies*of*Imported*Objects*and*How*they*shaped*the*17th*Century
Case*Study:*Tulips
Tulipmania:*1636-37
Tulips$come$from$Turkey,$they$were$first$introduced$to$Europe$in$1560's
They$were$initially$introduced$by$botanists,$and$were$brought$in$for$the$study$of$
their$medicinal$properties
End$of$the$16th$into$the$17th,$they$became$more$and$more$popular$among$all$
segments$of$society
When$purchasing$a$bulb,$we$do$not$know$what$the$flower$will$look$like
There$was$a$belief$that$what$you$did$to$cultivate$this$bulb$would$affect$
the$way$the$colour$and$variation$would$turn$out
The$Dutch$saw$the$Tulip$as$being$both$the$work$of$nature$as$well$as$the$work$of$
human$intervention
The$Semper*Augustus,$a$striped$tulip,$came$to$be$the$most$prized$possession$
and$the$most$valued$tulip$of$the$period
In$the$17th$century,$the$people$who$are$buying$tulip$bulbs$are$the$same$people$
building$cabinets$of$curiosities,$they$have$amassed$great$wealth$from$the$VOC$
and$the$WIC,$and$so$people$have$all$this$wealth$with$no$idea$how$to$manage$it
A$craze$for$tulips$happens$and$the$very$height$of$this$craze$takes$place$between$
1636$and$1637,$was$referred$to$as$"Tulipmania"
The$most$expensive$sale$of$a$tulip$-one$could$have$bought$a$mansion$in$
Amsterdam$with$that$same$amount$of$money
Tulips$and$tulip$bulbs$were$severely$overvalued
Tulipmania$developed$based$on$speculative$trading$-couldn't$know$what$would$
bloom$so$people$were$essentially$speculating$on$the$outcome
Semper$Augustus$became$the$most$prized$of$bulbs$and$people$began$to$paint$
portraits$of$it
1$bulb$was$traded$for$a$bed,$1000lbs$of$cheese,$and$some$bed$linen
People$would$barter$objects$for$tulip$bulbs
When$people$realize$ just$how$overpriced$these$bulbs$are,$they$began$selling$
them$-oversupply$resulted$in$the$crash$of$1637$that$decimated$the$fortunes$of$
many$people$-tulips$were$a$commodity$that$were$artificially$inflated$in$price
This$had$an$impact$on$art$production$and$the$trust$and$the$idea$of$making$
money$very$quickly$became$a$huge$concern
As$a$result$of$the$rise$and$crash$of$the$tulip$market,$people$lost$a$lot$of$money$
and$it$affected$the$kind$of$art$that$was$being$produced
Typically,$images$of$flowers$and$objects$of$everyday$life$would$have$been$
included$in$compositions$as$symbolic$attributes$for$people$like$Virgin$
Mary,$or$background$decoration$for$a$religious$subject
We$have$the$solidification$and$emergence$of$a$new$genre$of$art$
referred$to$as$Still*Life*Painting
§
In$17th$Century$Netherlands$under$Calvinism,$people$can't$paint$these$
types$of$images$anymore$-so$what$was$previously$in$the$background$
comes$to$the$foreground$and$really$becomes$the$subject$of$a$composition$
in$its$own$right
People$would$make$portraits$of$tulips,$which$contributed$to$a$new$genre$of$art$
called$Still*Life
Still*Life wouldn’t$just$be$about$flowers,$but$it$was$one$of$the$more$popular$still$
life$genres$in$the$Dutch$republic,$largely$attributed$to$this$fascination$with$
flowers$and,$in$particular,$tulips
Tulip$Portrait$-Semper$Augustus$-Page$from$a$17th$Century$Tulip$Catalogue,$
Anonymous$Artist
Note:$Thousands$of$these$were$produced$-Nothing$particularly$unique$about$
this$example
This$one$was$chosen$to$introduce$the$artist$-Rachel$Ruysch,$who$was$very$well-
known$and$well-regarded$at$the$time,$people$would$collect$ her$work$and$she$
specialized$in$flower$still$life$scenes
At$the$time,$her$paintings$would$sell$for$twice$as$much$as$what$a$painting$by$
Rembrandt$would$sell$for$
The$Semper$Augustus$has$a$prime$position$in$the$composition
-
It$is$about$durability$and$remembering$these$ephemeral$objects$that$only$bloom$
for$a$short$period$of$time
-
These$may$seem$realistic,$ but$they$are$very$much$about$deception$and$
artifice
We$have$flowers$that$come$from$different$parts$of$the$world$-making$this$
an$artificial$ illustration$of$this$bouquet$presented$for$visual$inspection
This$puts$forth$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$create$this$illusion
§
These$images$are$also$contrived$as$all$the$stems$and$branches$cannot$
possibly$be$contained$within$the$size$of$the$vase$that$holds$them
Flower$that$is$decaying$and$about$to$die$-warning$of$the$fleeting$
nature$of$life
§
Scholars$have$also$discussed$these$still$lifes$in$terms$of$the$Vanitas*
(memento*mori)*traditions
Notice:$the$unusual$thing$about$this$composition$is$that$all$these$flowers$are$
blooming$at$the$same$time$-not$all$of$these$plants$bloom$in$the$same$season
-
Side$note:$because$striped$tulips$were$so$prized,$we$see$an$increased$interest$in$
the$patterning$of$striped$things$(e.g.$shells)$-spawns$a$visual$interest$in$certain$
types$of$patterns$during$the$17th$century
Side$note:$the$irony$-the$stripes$on$the$prized$Semper$Augustus$were$caused$by$
a$virus.$in$Turkey$they$prized$the$solid$coloured$flowers
Almost$immediately$after$the$crash$of$tulipmania,$this$was$taken$up$in$visual$
culture,$literature,$theatre...$as$a$warning$$against$greed
Jan$Brueghel$the$Younger,$Satire$of$Tulip$Mania,$c.$1640
This$is$one$of$a$number$of$types$of$visual$culture$produced$directly$in$response$
to$tulipmania
We$have$all$the$tulip$speculators,$buyers,$and$sellers$pictured$as$foolish,$
unintelligent$monkeys
one$in$the$foreground$holds$a$list$of$the$types$of$tulips$and$the$prices$
associated$to$with$them.$He$is$inspecting$the$tulips$
A$pair$of$monkeys$demonstrating$and$perhaps$trying$to$sell$tulips$to$each$
other
One$who$has$just$purchased$or$about$to$sell$his$prized$Semper$Augustus$-
seen$with$his$money$bag
We$have$dressed$up$monkeys$having$a$business$meeting$-very$lavish$-
and$enjoying$the$mass$wealth
Jan$Brueghel$also$shows$us$the$downfalls$that$come$-we$can$see$a$
monkey$peeing$on$the$now$worthless$flowers,$and$we$can$see$all$the$
people$who$have$lost$their$money$being$taken$to$court$because$they've$
lost$their$homes$and$are$financially$responsible$for$things,$we$can$see$a$
monkey$sobbing.$In$the$background$we$can$see$a$monkey$who$has$died$
and$is$being$taken$to$his$burial
The$monkeys$have$been$given$human$characteristics:
All$the$messages$in$this$image$have$been$portrayed$in$a$comic$way,$but$they$are$
very$much$about$a$contemporary$issue$and$a$very$important$happening$that$
transformed$the$way$business$took$place,$the$way$people$trusted$each$other,$
and$the$way$they$valued$objects
Rachel$Ruysch,$Flower$Still$Life,$Second$Half$of$17th$Century,$Oil$on$Canvas
The$VOC$and$WIC$were$headquartered$in$Amsterdam
Tulips$came$to$Europe$through$trade$and$trade$relationships$(specifically,$
through$Turkey)
But$other$objects$and$peoples$came$to$Europe$because$of$forced$slavery,$
colonization,$and$various$other$reasons
The*Dutch*East*India*Company*(VOC)*and*the*Dutch*West*India*Company*(WIC)
Founded$at$the$turn$of$the$17th$Century
Became$one$of$the$most$powerful$trading$companies$in$all$ of$Europe$for$about$
200$years
The$Dutch$set$up$a$colony$in$Cape$Town$where$they$had$a$large$
provisions,$ships$would$stop$here$and$replenish.$They$would$then$
continue$East$where$they$could$get$pepper$and$tea
They$established$a$very$important$colony$called$Batavia$(present-day$$
Jakarta,$Indonesia)
The$Dutch$were$naming$places$according$to$their$Dutch$identity$-Batavia$
derives$from$the$Batavians,$who$the$Dutch$believed$were$their$ancestors
The$VOC$went$East$(Africa,$Mauritius,$Indonesia)
Since$the$Dutch$were$not$a$Monarchy$at$the$time,$there$was$no$royalty$that$
paid$money$to$send$ships$that$would$colonize$people$and$places$
Anyone$could$buy$a$share$in$a$VOC$ship$that$is$departing,$and$they$would$
get$a$percentage$of$what$the$ship$brought$back
People$got$very$wealthy$-the$wealth$was$coming$from$enslavement$and$
colonization$-which$was$also$fueling$the$production$of$images
On$average,$people$were$getting$a$400%$return$on$their$investment$in$the$
VOC
The$VOC$was$therefore$established$in$a$different$way$-it$was$funded$via$
shareholders
The$kinds$of$products$coming$back$impacted$what$was$highlighted$in$the$images$
being$produced
A$few$years$later,$because$of$the$profitability$of$the$VOC,$the$WIC$was$founded
VOC
Founded$in$1621$and$went$West
It$was$not$as$profitable$as$the$VOC,$but$still$quite$proftiable
It$went$to$places$like$the$West$Indies,$parts$of$South$America$(Surinam$today),$
Brazil,$and$then$later$they$also$went$to$North$America.$(the$Dutch$are$known$to$
have$founded$New$York,$it$was$originally$named$New$Amsterdam)
These$2$companies$are$very$powerful$in$the$17th$Century
All$the$colonization$is$for$things$that$are$not$necessary$-it$was$often$for$spices$
and$other$luxury$goods$-things$like$pepper$and$clove$motivated$trade,$but$these$
were$unknown$in$Europe$before$the$exploration
With$these$objects$and$spices$from$around$the$world,$another$type$of$still$life$
genre$emerged
Pieter$Claesz,$Still$Life$With$Turkey$Pie,$1627,$Oil$on$Panel
There$were$thousands$of$these$objects$being$produced
Pieter$Claesz$specialized$in$the$production$in$these$kinds$of$objects
These$images$bring$together$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$onto$one$
composition$(much$like$the$flowers)
Sheen$on$the$jug$-reflective$surfaces
Handle$of$the$knife$projects$out$into$our$space$
Shadow$of$plate$gives$a$sense$that$this$plate$can$fall$off
All$of$these$objects$from$various$parts$of$the$world$come$together$and$
were$conflated$through$visual$culture$-being$produced$en$masse$in$the$
17th$Century
Interest$in$artifice$a$d$the$ability$of$the$artist$to$demonstrate$his/her$talent
It$would$have$been$wrapped$in$newspaper$at$the$time
It$was$brought$back$by$the$VOC
Flavour$for$cooking
§
Believed$to$have$medicinal$properties
§
Used$as$a$preservation$techniques$for$food$and$medical$specimens
§
It$had$multiple$uses$in$the$17th$Century
The$most$expensive$object$on$this$table$is$the$pepper$in$the$bottom$right$corner
Sugar$was$also$an$important$novelty$at$the$time$-it$was$originally$from$the$East,$
but$was$taken$to$the$West$(the$Carribean$and$South$America)$where$it$was$
predominantly$produced$over$the$course$of$the$17th$and$18th$Centuries
Pieter$van$Roestraeten,$Still$life$with$Chinese$Tea$bowls,$c.$1670-80,$Oil$on$
Canvas
We$have$a$conflation$of$time$and$space$within$Still$Life$images
This$one$is$about$the$ceramics$that$come$from$China$
Interest$in$reflective$surfaces
The$2$tipped$bowls$that$are$pictured$here$-$$they$would$never$stay$in$
place.$It$is$as$if$they$are$about$to$roll$off$into$our$space
It$is$about$the$artist's$ability$to$manipulate$the$natural$and$artificial$world$
and$bring$things$together$in$a$canvas
Deception$and$artifice
We$can$see$sugar$crystals,$which$is$the$form$in$which$sugar$would$be$imported,$
or$as$sugar$loaves
The$objects$coming$back$to$Europe$are$often$because$of$the$subjugation$of$
indigenous$people$and$the$forces$transplantation$of$slaves,$which$$is$uncannily$
absent$from$these$lavish$still$life$images,$and$it$has$been$absent$from$the$
scholarship$about$Dutch$material
WIC
WIC
Dutch$captured$part$of$Brazil$from$the$Portuguese$in$the$17th$century
Recife$was$the$Capital
They$established$a$colony$in$Brazil$and Johann$Maurtis$van$Nassau ('The$
Brazilian')$was$tasked$with$being$governor
He$fashions$himself$like$a$king$-lives$quite$grandly$and$embarks$on$a$building$
campaign$in$Recife
He$decided$to$rename$Recife$to$Maurtisstad
He$builds$himself$a$palace$with$elaborate$gardens:$Vrijberg$Palace$which$no$
longer$exists
On$his$ship$to$Brazil,$he$takes$a$team$of$scientists,$2$artists$-basically$a$team$of$
people$who$could$fulfill$all$his$requirements$in$establishing$the$new$colony$in$
Brazil
The$practice$ of$taking$scientists$and$artists$on$the$journey$to$new$lands$was$not$
unusual$-there$is$a$need$to$accurately$record$and$accurately$classify$the$new$
plants,$specimens$and$other$new$encounters$that$take$place$in$the$new$lands
When$Europeans$first$started$to$explore$ the$world,$what$they$expected$to$find$
were$monsters$and$deformed$people$because$that$was$the$impression$given$to$
them$by$ancient$writers$-that$beyond$the$confinements$of$Europe$monstrous$
bodies$existed.$The$Dutch$did$not$find$monsters,$but$they$need$to$mark$
difference$in$new$ways$-we$will$consider$the$visual$strategies$being$employed$
in$the$marking$of$difference$between$Europeans$and$the$Native$Populations$
they$encounter$in$the$new$lands
The$main$hall$would$have$been$the$important$space$where$one$would$
greet$dignitaries$and$where$people$would$come$in$from$Europe$-very$
important$to$give$a$sense$grandeur
He$commissions$one$of$the$artists,$Albert*Eckhout,$to$paint$a$series$of$images$to$
decorate$the$main$hall$in$his$Vrijberg$palace
He$commissioned$5$pairs$(10$total)$of$images$that$hung$along$each$wall$in$the$
main$hallway
In$these$images,$the$bodies$and$the$people$that$are$depicted$are$being$shown$
very$much$like$the$commodities$and$objects$that$populate$still$life$compositions
(5th$pair$is$still$life$of$Brazilian$Fruits)
Case*Study:*Brazil
Lecture'15'Week'9
Thursday,$March$17,$2016 8:00$AM
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