ARKY 357 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Machu Picchu, Smallpox, Pachacuti

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Ghosts of Machu Picchu Notes
They didn’t have iron tools or the wheel, yet they created such masterpieces.
People are figuring out more and more about the Inca today by old skeletons found.
8000 Feet on a narrow ridge in the Andes – Machu Picchu
More than 200 structures, built with cut stone. Some homes, some temples.
Open waterways and fountains throughout Machu Picchu.
At its highest point, you get a full view of Machu Picchu.
Throughout the city, stones are present which were being moved when the city was abandoned.
Inca were surefooted and were not afraid of heights.
10,000 mile network (roads)
Khipu – counting system using knotted string
Inca ruled for only 100 years, then they were decimated by disease, then civil war, then the
1572 Spanish destroy the city of vilkabamba. No written record of where it was located though.
350 Years later – Hiram Bingham starts searching. July 24, 1911 . Bingham reached the top of a
ridge and found Machu Picchu.
80% of the dead were women. 4 Times as many females as males.
Bingham thought he found the virgins of the sun. The most beautiful girls were chosen for this.
Selected around the age of 8. They served the Inca emperor for the rest of their lives.
He thought that when the Inca emperor ran away, he brought his virgins with him. This place
was vilkabamba.
April 1913 National Geographic – He became a star. But his story was wrong.
Sex of skeletons was actually close to 1:1. People in the Andes are short, so he thought that
they were women because they were short.
Patallacta – Large scale farming took place, and delivered food to Machu Picchu. People were
not just farmers, they were stone workers, buildings, laborers.
Trepination – Partial removal of part of the skull. High degrees of success – Often done to
release the inter cranial pressure due to fractures.
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