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Class Notes for Biochemistry at University of Calgary

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BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Hypoxanthine, Peptidyl Transferase, Hydrolysis
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Genetic Code and Protein Translation TRANSLATION - mRNA is the only type of RNA that is translated into proteins - The four letter alphabet of nucleic acids GCAU is translated into the entirely different 20 letter a...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Adenine, Consensus Sequence, Covalent Bond
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RNA Processing 3 TYPES OF RNA MOLECULES PERFORM DIFFERENT BUT COOPERATIVE FUNCTIONS - Messenger RNA (mRNA) - Carries the genetic information copied form DNA in the form of a series of three-base codes (codons) ...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Skeletal Muscle, Tamoxifen, Anabolic Steroid
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Eukaryotic Transcription REVIEW OF PROKARYOTIC TRANSCRIPTION REGULATION OF LAC OPERON - Repressor prevents gene expression by binding to operator (controlling) region - Lac operon is an inducible set of genes which are...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Tata Box, Rifampicin, Dactinomycin
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Prokaryotic Transcription FLOW OF GENETIC INFORMATION - Key points: - Protein factors assemble at the beginning of a gene - The RNA polymerase races along the dsDNA reading the gene - mRNA uses uracil (U) inst...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 15: Adenine, Ethidium Bromide, Dna Mismatch Repair
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DNA Repair CLASSES OF DNA DAMAGE - DNA damage can be caused by chemical agents, UV, or DNA replication itself - Example: DNA replication > Taq DNA Polymerase - Error rate 2.28x10^-5 / base pair - 22.8 errors...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Helicase, Dna Supercoil, Dnaa
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DNA Replication SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATION As DNA is replicated, one of the strands of each daughter DNA molecule would be newly synthesized, whereas the oth er would be passed unchanged from the parent DNA molecule Th...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: The Double Helix, Uracil, Phosphodiester Bond
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Structure of Nucleic Acids NUCLEIC ACIDS PRIMARY STRUCTURE - DNA - Has a phosphate group connected to a de- oxyribose sugar which is connected to a base (ATGC) - Nucleotides: phosphate sugar base - N...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Standard Hydrogen Electrode, Oxidative Phosphorylation, Faraday Constant
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Oxidation Phosphorylation LOCALIZATION OF OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION - The citric acid cycle occurs in the mitochondrial matrix - Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane, which is impermeabl...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase, Acetyl-Coa, Lipoamide
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Bridge Reactions and Krebs Cycle SUMMARY GLYCOLYSIS - 6 carbons enter the pathway as one glucose, 6 carbons exit the pathway as 2 pyruvates - Pathway can be divided into prep and payoff phases - Carbon is split from ...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: Glycogen Phosphorylase, Glycogenolysis, Phosphoglucomutase
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Gluconeogenesis THE IMPORTANCE OF GLUCOSE It is the only fuel that the brain uses under non starvation conditions The whole body needs ~ 160g glucoseday, of that the brain uses 120 g It is the one fuel that red blood ce...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Glucose Transporter, Hexokinase, Glut4
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Glycolysis and Fermentation GLUCOSE UPTAKE GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS - Transmembrane carrier proteins - Carrier proteins are involved in facilitated diffusion - Carrier proteins move molecules down their concentration g...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Acetyl-Coa, Vitamin Deficiency, Oxidative Phosphorylation
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Metabolism Part 1 GENERATION OF ENERGY FROM FOOD - Occurs in 3 stages: - Digestion - Conversion of simple digestion units (sugars, fatty acids, glycerol, and many amino acids) to Acetyl CoA - Some ATP ...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Metabolic Pathway, Menton, Enzyme Inhibitor
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Enzymes Part 4 METABOLIC PATHWAY - In the picture on the right, A, B, C, D, E, F are six biochemical intermediates in this hypothetical pathway - e1, e2, e3, e4, e5 are enzymes that catalyze the individual re...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Lactase, Chromogenic, Competitive Inhibition
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Enzymes Part 3 ALMOST ALL BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS FALL INTO A FEW TYPES Oxidation and reduction: For example the interconversion of an alcohol and an aldehydeketone Some steps in glycolysis and fermentation Movement of f...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards
BCEM 393 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Turnover Number, Enzyme Kinetics, Ionic Strength
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Enzymes Part 2 KINETICS RATES OF REACTION - Kinetics = Study of the rates of chemical reactions - V = d[P]/dt = - d[A]/dt - For a First Order Reaction: V = k[A] - Units for first-order rate constant, k is s or min...

Biochemistry
BCEM 393
Robert Allan Edwards

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