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Lecture 1

BIOL 205 Lecture 1: Day 1

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BIOL 205
Nelly Pant←

Shared Characteristics of Living Things All living things are composed primarily of Carbon, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Hydrogen All living things encode hereditary information as genes with the DNA molecule as a medium DNA has a fourletter alphabet, allowing 3letter codes for specific amino acids Hereditary information is transmitted generation to generation via DNAbased genes All living things consist largely of water and its unusual physical properties All living things use inherited genetic information to increase size and change structure from conception All living things can participate in the production of new individuals which initiate their own sequence of growth and development All living things display regular complexity of structure All living things are made of cells All living things expend energy to maintain a stable internal environment relative to the external environment All living things display features and behaviors which help them deal effectively with the environment These characteristics are necessary and sufficient for a mechanistic characterization of life Hierarchy Hierarchy a system of organization in which each successive level incorporates and supersedes all lower levels The living world is arranged hierarchically in two ways: by complexity and by descent Levels of biological organization: Biosphere oceans, land surfaces and the lower atmosphere that support living things Ecosystem natural subdivision of the biosphere, based on spatial and physical characteristics Community Assemblage of all organisms that inhabit an ecosystem Population All of the individuals of one species within a community Organism living individual Organ system group of one or more organs which act together to carry out one or more basic functions Organ structure composed of two or more tissues, carrying out portions of basic functions for the organism Tissue Grouping of cells organized together to carry out some very basic function Cell lowest living level of organization Organelle multi molecular membranebound subcellular structure carrying out functions necessary for cell metabolism Molecule Regular structure composed of atoms Emergent property characteristic or behavior of one level produced by interactions of the entities making up the levels below it A cell has the emergent property of being alive; organelles, which make up the cell, are not alive, but they all contribute to the cells state of living The living world can be classified by evolutionary relationships between species; this is the systematic hierarchy The systematic hierarchy is made up of taxa A species is the only unit in this hierarchy
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