very low frequencies of sound.docx

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Biomedical Engineering
BMEN 515
William Huddleston

 very low frequencies of sound, giving coastlines and mountain chains  behaviour can evolve into systems of information exchangecommunication, which may become elaborated as displays or signals, if it benefits both the sender and receiver  animals communicate using sensory modes, differing in how it is performed, properties of signals, and what can be communicated  visual signals: easy to produce, come in endless variety, can be changed rapidly, clear indicate position of signaller o not useful at night or low light areas; predators can use deception  pheromones: molecules used for chemical communication btwn individuals of same species; specific, information-rich messages o ex mammals marking territory/trails o remain in environment longer than visual signals, but not rapid exchange  auditory signals: cannot convey complex info as rapidly as visuals, but can be used at night or in dark areas o transmitted in complex environments (forests), receiver does not have to focus on signaller; can communicate over larger distances than with visual signals  tactile signals: used when visuals signals is difficult (ex dance of honeybees) o waggle dance: conveys info about distance and direction of food source o round dance: food source is within 80 metres; involves bee running rapidly in circle and reversing direction; odour (indicates flower) + dance = chemical + tactile cues  electrical signals: used by fish to generate electric fields in water by emitting electrical impulses; used for sensing objects and communication o males emit lower frequencies, females higher, and relates to status in group o can determine sex, identity, social position of fish by electric signals; locate prey by distortions in electric field  social behaviour evolves when cooperating conspecifics achieve higher rates of survival and reproduction than if they had lived alone (ants, bees, wasps, lions)  many degrees of social system complexity exist among living species  social systems are dynamic; individuals repeatedly communicate with one another and adjust relationships b/c costs and benefits experienced by individuals change with age, sex, physiological condition, status  must understand how individuals that join together benefit from doing so  groups may confer many types of benefits (hunting success, expand food range) [hawk most successful when attacked solitary pigeons)  but costs a lotinterferes with food (pigeons’ seeds) and inhibit others’ attempts to produce or injure offspring; higher exposure to diseases and parasites  most widespread form of social system (SS) is association btwn 1/2 parents with immature, independent offspring; some have more adult individuals  simple mammalian SS, solitary females pairs care for young, older offspring may still be present when next generation is bornhelp rear newborns; females stay in group but men usually leave. Thus most helpers are females  altruistic acts: behaviours that reduce helper’s reproductive chances but increases fitness of helped individual; favoured by natural selection  animals offspring can contribute to its individual fitness. By helping relatives, individual can increase representation of own alleles in population. Inclusive fitness of individual involves
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