Artificial Selection Domestic Animals and Plants.docx

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Biomedical Engineering
BMEN 515
William Huddleston

Artificial Selection: Domestic Animals and Plants  To increase the frequency of desirable traits in their stocks, plant and animal breeders employ artificial selection (Example of Darwin and his pigeon’s on Page 74). o If the desirable traits are passed from parents to offspring, then the next generation, consisting of the progeny of only the selected mates, will show the desirable traits in a higher proportion than existed in the previous generation. o Read example of Tomato on page 74 and 75. Evolution by Natural Selection  Darwin realized that a process like artificial selection occurs in nature  His Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection suggests that descent with modification is the logical outcome of four postulates:  Individuals within populations are variable  The variations among individuals are, at least in part, passed from parents to offspring  In every generation, some individuals are most successful at surviving and reproducing than others  The survival and reproduction of individuals are not random; instead they are tied to the variation among individuals. The individuals with the most favourable variations, those who are better at surviving and reproducing, are naturally selected. o If these four postulates are true then composition of the population changes from one generation to the next (see Figure 3.4 on page 76). o If there are differences among the individuals in a population that can be passed on to offspring, and if there is differential success among those individuals in surviving and/or reproducing, then some traits will be passed on more frequently than other.  The characteristics of a population will change slight with each succeeding generation Darwinian evolution. o Darwin referred to the individuals who are better at surviving and reproducing, and whose offspring make up a great percentage of the population in the next generation as fit:  The ability of an individual to survive and reproduce in its environment  An important aspect is its relative nature. Fitness refers to how well an individual survives and how many offspring it produces compared to others of its species.  Adaptation refers to a trait or characteristic of an organism that increases its fitness relative to individuals without the trait.
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