Mar 3,5 Essay Notes + Technological Determinism
Peer reviewed articles, scholarly sources
4 secondary scholarly sources
check with your TA which style they are using (MLA, APA)
If choosing a magazine article from last year… going to be suspicious. Did someone else analyze
that article..? use current
How have social networking media changed human communication? You should choose either a
specific medium or a particular kind of communication (personal, professional, etc.). Useful theories
might include technological determinism, dramaturgy or postmodernism.
Specific: twitter campaign of Nenshi
Representations of race
Ex: pick a particular tv show
Look for the 5 concepts of criticial race theory in that tv show
Pick a really narrow topic for analysis
Even an ad campaign
Tv ad: visuals and voiceover that’s happening/dialogue
Ex: nbc’s representation of women in moguls coverage
Ex: pick a Disney movie: how gender is constructed through particular dress, acts, etc
Ch11 Theories of Mass Communication TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISON (Marshal McLuhan)
Very important theory within Communication studies. Developed by Canadian.
It’s what WE have called Marshal Mcluhan. He did not call himself a technological determinist. We
named it after it was developed
Determinism. Biological determinism: the way we are born is a determining factor. With Tech.
Determ., we are replacing biology with technology
Media technology is the determiner of most aspects of human behavior. Or interaction and
relationship building. For Mcluhan, media technology weren’t just toold or sources of entertainment,
they were fundamentally __ to society. Really strong influence that technology has. Deterministic
relationship. All these other parts of our lives are determined by our relationship with technology.
Four Epochs/eras: (aypoks) moevements within communication
Tribal focusing on oral communication. Face to face. No emphasis on technologies here. Pre
technology era. Very simple person to person oral communication.
Literate marked by the invention of the phonetic alphabet which gave us common symbols that
made written communication possible. Didn’t need to rely on being 2 people in the same space.
Written visual code which allowed us to communicate nonverbally (although not necessarily at the
same time). First rules based communication certain symbols mean certain things, and we have
an idea of how communication is supposed to flow. When we started to build those expections of
what the rules of communications are.
Print printing press . made it possible to massproduce communication. Mass communication.
Didn’t need just one person to slowly copy out something. Rather, can replicate it. Really reduced
the need for facetoface communication. Really distinguishing/deterministic change. Important
Electronic for mcluhan, this revived the oral tradition of communication b/c it because possible for
people to communicate voicetovoice. Can have voiced conversations even if not in the same
room. Telephone, email, text messaging, video conferencing/skype. The elec. Epoch recreated an
expectation that people could communicate with intimacy and immediacy.
Raise the bar in terms of our expectations of being able to communicate across time
and space. Relying on nonverbal cues. (now: emoticons) things that somehow
express tone, going to be a b