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Lecture 1

GEOG 213 Lecture 1: NOTES

74 Pages
Winter 2018

Course Code
GEOG 213
Aaron Williams

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Man-made theory of a continent
Ultimately it is part of the Eurasian continent but manmade definitions put physical
boundaries like the Ural Mountains and Bosporus.
Maritime climate in much of France, Britain, Spain, Ireland
Mediterranean climate in southern France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Croatia
Continental climate in Eastern Europe, Austria, Germany, Poland, Russia
Alpine variable climate around alps, Pyrenees, Massif Central
Polar climate in Iceland, northern Sweden, Norway, Russia
Various stores of various resources from the wide range of climate and natural
Warm ocean currents along the North Atlantic coasts of Ireland, UK, and
Scandinavian countries
Prevailing westerlies blows warm moist air north
These currents keep the Baltic Sea warmer than most bodies of water at that
This warming effect makes all of Europe warmer, not just the north
Why is it so warm considering latitude?
1. Central Uplands - Germany, France, Poland
2. Alpine Mountains - Switzerland, Austria, Italy, Greece, Spain
3. Western Uplands - Scandinavia, Spain, UK
4. Northern European Lowland - Eastern Europe, France, UK,
4 physiographic units:
Physiography: total physical geography
Similar to North American western plain
Formed from bedrock of ancient seas
Wars, migration, etc.
One of the world's greatest avenue of human contact, positive and negative
Really, a number of connected plain regions including delta regions, Paris basin,
Baltic plain, etc.
The European hills - Massif Central, Hercynian hills (Black Forest), Bohemian hills
Subdivided by numerous river valleys and basins
Collision of Indo-Australian Plate with Eurasian plate to form Himalayas
Mountain ranges like the Alps, Apennine, Pyrenees, and Pindos formed by collision
Wednesday, January 31, 2018
3:33 PM
Geography 213 Page 1
Mountain ranges like the Alps, Apennine, Pyrenees, and Pindos formed by collision
between African and Eurasian Plates
Eurasian plates form volcanic ranges and arcs in the pacific region where Eurasian
plate and pacific plate collide
Mostly deciduous forest
Scandinavian countries tend towards a Boreal Forest
Correlation between population and land around rivers with soil good for farming
Primary geomorphologic mechanism
Primary sediment transportation
Very hospitable for crops
Create fertile soil and microclimates around river valleys
Major transportation mechanism - less so now
Water source
Now the water is some of the cleanest rivers in the world
When rivers flood it damages crop land because of the residual effects of the
polluted river beds
Used to get very polluted because of industrial revolution and urbanization
Links to Africa and Asia
Maximum efficiency for global contact
First major historical European society
Bunch of joined city-states
Eventually defeats enemies and becomes larger than Greek Empire
Grekification of Rome
Envelopes Greece and adopts many of the Greek practice, religion, government, etc.
Western empire overtaken by Germans
Eastern overtaken by Ottoman - lasted much longer than the West
Roman Empire split into Eastern and Western
Worked for feudal lords who provided them with land and demanded crops as
rent payment
Peasants were indentured - unable to leave land or change positions - dad was
a farmer, son was a farmer. Dad was a blacksmith, son was a blacksmith, etc.
Vast majority of population peasants
Bourgeoise middle class of merchants arises
Social order was based on custom and tradition
Geography 213 Page 2
Peasant families would always work for the same family of lords
Social order was based on custom and tradition
Diet lacked nutritional value
Life expectancy was less than t50
Inhospitable climate - famine every few years
From 950-1250 - 0.4% pop growth/year
Cities were few and far between and very small populations
Very small urban population
In the cities, guilds of skilled craftsmen lived and worked
Revival of science, new discoveries, culture
Exploration led the way to competition driven by capitalism and colonialism
Social revolution and rise of merchant class challenges status quo
Rapid urbanization
Population growth and urbanization increased opportunities for farmers
Land ownership practice changed
Merchants with crops from the Americas drew farmers into the economy
Growth of Agricultural Industry
1348 - bubonic plague carried by rats kills one third of European population
Resulted in labour scarcity but lots of land
Weakened the landowners and made peasants less weak
Serfs could move away from their lords with less fear of being recaptured
Industrial transformation of agrarian Europe
Significant growth and innovation starting in Britain and spreading into the
rest of Europe
Creation of steam engine
Coal mines discovered
Industrialized society
Britain at the center of the revolution
Industrial cities became the backbone of Europe’s population
East-west industrial axis (Britain, France, Italy, Germany, etc.)
Huge urbanization
Same size as United States
Consists of many independent states
Some states are homogenous nation states while others are a heterogeneous mix of
different ethnicities, religions, languages, and cultures
Separatism, nationalism and external influences are strong forces in Europe
Geography 213 Page 3

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EUROPE Wednesday, January 31, 2013:33 PM PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTOF EUROPE Manmadetheory of a continent Ultimatelyit is part of the Eurasiancontinent but manmadedefinitionsput physical boundaries like the Ural Mountains and Bosporus. CLIMATE ZONES Maritimeclimatein muchof France, Britain, Spain, Ireland Mediterraneanclimatein southernFrance, Spain, Italy, Greece, Croatia Continental climatein Eastern Europe, Austria,Germany, Poland, Russia Alpine variable climatearound alps, Pyrenees, MassifCentral Polar climatein Iceland,northern Sweden, Norway, Russia RESOURCES Variousstores of various resourcesfrom the wide range of climateand natural environments CLIMATE Why is it so warm consideringlatitude? Warm oceancurrents along the North Atlantic coastsof Ireland, UK, and Scandinaviancountries Prevailing westerliesblows warm moistair north Thesecurrents keep the Baltic Sea warmer than mostbodies of water at that latitude This warming effectmakes all of Europe warmer, not just the north LANDFORMS Physiography:total physicalgeography 4 physiographicunits: 1. Central Uplands Germany, France, Poland 2. Alpine Mountains Switzerland,Austria,Italy, Greece,Spain 3. WesternUplands Scandinavia,Spain, UK 4. NorthernEuropean Lowland Eastern Europe, France, UK, EUROPEANPLAIN Similarto North Americanwestern plain Formed from bedrockof ancient seas One of the worlds greatest avenue of humancontact, positiveand negative Wars,migration,etc. Really, a number of connectedplain regionsincluding delta regions, Paris basin, Baltic plain, etc. The Europeanhills MassifCentral, Hercynian hills (Black Forest), Bohemianhills Subdividedby numerous river valleys and basins PLATE BOUNDARIES Collisionof IndoAustralianPlate with Eurasianplate to form Himalayas Mountain ranges like the Alps, Apennine, Pyrenees, and Pindos formed by collision
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