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Geology 307

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University of Calgary
GLGY 307
M.Dan Georgescu

Geology 307-01 9/10/2012 1:02:00 PM Midterm 1 October 10- 20% Multiple choice Midterm 2 November 5- 30% Multiple choice Final exam- 50% Multiple choice No textbook (exams based on slides) Lectures posted 10 pm night before class Review classes before exams Paleontology is the study of hard bodies of organisms Biology is the study of soft bodies of organisms 7 modules will be discussed Dinosaurs! September 12, 2012 Geological History of Life In science, the data must be repeatable Domains of learning: affective, cognitive, and psychomotor-----science Principles of science: no interference with other methods (narrow domain) Scientist is an observer and interpreter Methods to understand the natural reality Religion Art- dual. Function of the artist, irrelative afterwards Philosophy- Relative. Provide explanation for a certain period of time until a better understanding is found Science- Relative. Provide explanation for a certain period of time until a better understanding is found These methods tell a story Religion- Humans are created by a god, a demi god or a group of gods Art- variety of opinions Science- Data only can be used if acquired through scientific method Yucatan peninsula- a major meteorite impact happened and dinosaurs became extinct, created niches for mammals to fill and evolve. Primates especially (very easily evolved). Represents a classical separation of evolution (old and new world monkeys) Shows gradual transition from Monkeys to Apes to Humans Hominids and Hominins developed bipedalism 1. Homo habilis: To inhabit, Permanent villages, 2.4-1.6 MYA, Eastern and Southern Africa. Used certain boulders (only very resistant rocks), broke them to create sharp edges (cutting meat, wood, skinning animals, etc.). Different way of thinking than apes. Tool size increased with growing body size, better for hunting large animals. Became smarter. 2. Homo erectus: The standing man, 1.8MYA-300,000YA. Fully bipedal species, bigger than habilis. First ones to attach stone to sticks to create better weapons. Tools became more sophisticated. 3. Homo neanderthalensis: Much bigger than ancestors, almost as tall as modern humans. Brain case close to modern humans- much smarter. Produced smaller tools, more efficient, better made. Knew exactly what stones to use for what tools. Conquered Northern and temperate regions. 4. Homo sapiens: Thinking man. 200,000YA to present. Took over entire earth. Tools similar to Neanderthalensis but neocortex allowed better thinking and more advanced tools. Developed other vestiges similar to disciplines such as Art and religion. Chimpanzees use tools as found in nature, humans work the tools to fit their need. Certain tools are only found with the bones of a certain species. Primary objective of science is to learn. No other species master fire, articulated language, the wheel, expression through art, level of consciousness, religion, advanced technology, currency, curiosity to study our own origins. -Evolution, The human story: Recommended book September 14, 2012 Fossils- remains of living organisms, ancient life forms (can be dead plant or animal) Process of fossilization is the turning of a living organism into a fossil Fossils are 11000 years old. Younger ones are subfossils Only some parts of the organisms become fossilized, only the hard parts (mineralized parts)- Can be endo or exoskeleton Soft parts are not fossilized because they are not mineralized E.g. Coral colony, made of calcite Plants (soft body parts) can also be preserved Burgess shale most famous outcrop in the world because of the amount of fossils found there, shows the process of experimentation completely First important major predator: had eyes animilocious Burial must be extremely fast to create fossils Paleontologists interpret fossil record Kinds of fossils Body fossils- certain parts preserved of an organism o E.g. Coral colony, trilobites, bivalve shells, ammonites Trace fossils- preserve the trace of activity e.g. Movement or feeding o Movement of a worm (not the worm itself), holes in wood dug by organisms Chemical fossils- not considered in this course. Chemical substances of the body in reaction to the minerals surrounding the organism History of fossils Fossils had mythical role: Greeks used fossils in limestone to mark the roads, people were buried with petrified wood in Eutruscan times, dragon teeth in China Greeks tried to rationalize fossils not by divine intervention (Xenophanes of Colophone wrote book about fossils (tried to explain without God. Moisture started the world, transformationist) and (Herodotus studied mountains which held traces of life forms, interpreted the rocks in mountains were once on the sea floor) Romans added new sense after Greeks, that fossils occurred spontaneously not by a God (Games of nature) Leonardo da Vinci said Alps were once bottom of an ocean and vestiges of ancient life forms Conrad Gessner illustrated fossils without any higher beings assoc. Niels Stensen credited with first interpretation to reconstruct the Earths history. (Fossils occur only as hard body parts) long process because soft tissue has a lot of time to decay. First to challenge the biblical record, indirectly. Paleontology branches Micropaleontology- microscopic debris fossils Palynology- debris of spores and pollen fossils Paleobotany- study of plant fossils Invertebrate paleontology- animals with no vertebrae Vertebrate paleontology- animals with a vertebrae September 17, 2012 Rocks are formed in sedimentary places Sediments are not consolidated, sedimentary rocks are consolidated igneous rocks are formed by the hardening of magma Sedimentary rocks are formed either at the Earths surface Classification of sedimentary rocks: Detriral- (clastic rocks or siliciclastic) made of clasts and matrix. Most fragments are usually quartz or other silicates. Well rounded clasts are usually transported a far distance. o Conglomerate or breccia Chemical- (precipitated, chemically precipitated) Biochemical- precipitated by the organic activity or accumulation of dead organisms Clasts are made of one mineral Lithoclasts are two or more minerals (rock fragments) Bioclasts are made of dead organisms (fossils) 4 classes of detrital sedimentary rocks: boulder, gravel, sand, mud Chemical sedimentary rocks Cochina rock- contains mostly shells Mud-supported (mudstone, wackestone), grain-supported (packstone, grainstone), organic (boundstone)
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