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Chapter 9 Avalanches.docx

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University of Calgary
GOPH 375

Chapter 9 AvalanchesPresentationTwo types o Point releaseusually small o Slab avalanchebig huge chunk comes down BC Prince Rupert slide T creek 1989 1 person killed town was prewarnedAvalanche consultanttell towns of potential hazardsSt Johns Signal Hill national park1959 5 people killed rock fall st Jan 19 fatalities 25 injuredRoad avalanches No avalanches in Canada since 1986 But we do have many road closures1976 last road avalanche in CanadaKicking Horse passGolden BC avalanche shut down trans Canada for 2 weeks 1979 storm across BC Grandview chairlift Alpine meadows1984 Davos SwitzerlandMitigationnets to stop avalancheso Gazexexploders that release propane and oxygen to get a large explosion out and release the snow Expensive We lose an average of one person per year from avalanchesVast majority of fatalities are recreationalvoluntary risk Skiing is in avalanche terrain15 fatalities per year Forecasting stabilize slopes by using explosivesForecasting is very experienced based o Snow packed testdetermining how hard the snow isstrength how much its packed o Ritch block testnumbers 15 scaleo Each square is one day on 62 graph Evaluator pocket card measures risk 86 Rescue gear ballon packsinflates so that you rise higher than the flowo Avalonput it in your mouth and it separates where you inhaleexhale from to avoid the ice masks that forms when your exhale breath freezes snow around you Human factorsyouth snowmobilers Transceivers underclothing can pick up a reading from 6070m a part Useful for 2 snowboarders if ones caught the other can receive a signal that tells them where they are Purposely start small avalanches before layers build up enough to be dangerousAvalanches are Canadas most destructive geological forcesGravity is the main power behind avalanches All slopes will eventually fall over time creep or suddenly o Gravity pulls rocks to earths center with forcerocks mass X gravitational acceleration 98 ms2 o Gravity pulls rock straight down another force pulls it perpendicular to the slope causing it to roll parallel to the slope down the hill
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