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Lecture 2

GLGY 307 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Permafrost, Vertebrate Paleontology, PermineralizationPremium

3 pages128 viewsFall 2017

Department
Geology
Course Code
GLGY 307
Professor
M.Dan Georgescu
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2: Fossils
Fossils are remains of older life forms, vestiges of once living organisms
Fossilization: the process through which a living organism is transformed into a
fossil
Fossils & subfossils; threshold at 11,700 years
Hard & Soft Parts
Hard parts mineralized
Soft parts not mineralized
Kinds of Fossils
Body fossils: partially/completely fossilized dead organisms
o Most frequent kinds
Trace fossils: preserve organism activities (eg. Feeding & movement)
Chemical fossils: (biomarkers) chemical substances resulted from the chemical
reactions between the substances in a living or dead organism & the minerals &
other substances from the surrounding environment
Paleontology
Micropaleontology
Palynology
Paleobotany
Intervertebrate paleontology
Vertebrate paleontology
Paleontology Related Sciences
Paleoecology: ancient ecosystems
Paleobiogeography: space distribution of fossils
Biostratigraphy: fossil distribution in space & time
Evolutionary Paleontology: ancestor-descendant relationships between fossils
species & groupings of species
Fossilization
Fossilization is the process of transformation of a dead organism into a fossil
There are only a few cases when the fossilized organism remains almost intact
during the process of fossilization in the vast majority of cases
Kinds of fossilization: permineralization, recrystallization, moldic preservation,
replacement, carbonization, metasomatosis, impregnation, fossilization through
impression, congealment, dehydration, fossilization in amber, fossilization in tar
pits
Permineralization
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