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Lecture 2

GLGY 307 Lecture 2: & 3: Fossils
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3 Pages
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Fall 2017

Department
Geology
Course Code
GLGY 307
Professor
M.Dan Georgescu
Lecture
2

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Lecture 2: Fossils
Fossils are remains of older life forms, vestiges of once living organisms
Fossilization: the process through which a living organism is transformed into a
fossil
Fossils & subfossils; threshold at 11,700 years
Hard & Soft Parts
Hard parts mineralized
Soft parts not mineralized
Kinds of Fossils
Body fossils: partially/completely fossilized dead organisms
o Most frequent kinds
Trace fossils: preserve organism activities (eg. Feeding & movement)
Chemical fossils: (biomarkers) chemical substances resulted from the chemical
reactions between the substances in a living or dead organism & the minerals &
other substances from the surrounding environment
Paleontology
Micropaleontology
Palynology
Paleobotany
Intervertebrate paleontology
Vertebrate paleontology
Paleontology Related Sciences
Paleoecology: ancient ecosystems
Paleobiogeography: space distribution of fossils
Biostratigraphy: fossil distribution in space & time
Evolutionary Paleontology: ancestor-descendant relationships between fossils
species & groupings of species
Fossilization
Fossilization is the process of transformation of a dead organism into a fossil
There are only a few cases when the fossilized organism remains almost intact
during the process of fossilization in the vast majority of cases
Kinds of fossilization: permineralization, recrystallization, moldic preservation,
replacement, carbonization, metasomatosis, impregnation, fossilization through
impression, congealment, dehydration, fossilization in amber, fossilization in tar
pits
Permineralization
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Description
Lecture 2: Fossils Fossils are remains of older life forms, vestiges of once living organisms Fossilization: the process through which a living organism is transformed into a fossil Fossils subfossils; threshold at 11,700 years Hard Soft Parts Hard parts mineralized Soft parts not mineralized Kinds of Fossils Body fossils: partiallycompletely fossilized dead organisms o Most frequent kinds Trace fossils: preserve organism activities (eg. Feeding movement) Chemical fossils: (biomarkers) chemical substances resulted from the chemical reactions between the substances in a living or dead organism the minerals other substances from the surrounding environment Paleontology Micropaleontology Palynology Paleobotany Intervertebrate paleontology Vertebrate paleontology Paleontology Related Sciences Paleoecology: ancient ecosystems Paleobiogeography: space distribution of fossils Biostratigraphy: fossil distribution in space time Evolutionary Paleontology: ancestordescendant relationships between fossils species groupings of species Fossilization Fossilization is the process of transformation of a dead organism into a fossil There are only a few cases when the fossilized organism remains almost intact during the process of fossilization in the vast majority of cases Kinds of fossilization: permineralization, recrystallization, moldic preservation, replacement, carbonization, metasomatosis, impregnation, fossilization through impression, congealment, dehydration, fossilization in amber, fossilization in tar pits Permineralization 1
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