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Chapter 1-2.docx

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Geophysics
Course Code
GOPH 375
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All

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Chapter 1
Not responsible for Population Growth (pg 14-16)
What is a Natural Disaster?
A natural disaster is a natural occurrence in which a large amount of energy is released in a short
amount of time, and causes loss of life (human or otherwise) or damage to property/economic
losses
Natural disasters are often triggered when society ignores hazardous conditions in nature
Deadliest natural hazards are hurricanes and earthquakes (Table 1.2)
o Others: floods (cause landslides), volcanic eruptions (landslides)
Measuring hazards
o Disaster frequency: number of occurrences in a given length of time
o Return period: length of time between similar events (inverse of frequency)
o Magnitude: amount of energy fuelling a natural event
Figure 1.1 graph
o Smaller energy releases all the time, bigger energy releases…
Figure 1.2
o Geological disasters: earthquakes, volcanoes, mass movements
o Weather disasters: heat waves, drought, wildfires flood, storms cause of most
Canadian natural disasters - drought
o Changing weather patterns may increase the frequency of natural disasters
Table 1.3
More densely populated places have more fatalities in a natural disaster than less populated
Vulnerability: likelihood that a community will suffer, in terms of fatalities and physical damage
Risk: product of vulnerability and hazard; risk = vulnerability X hazard
Our dependence on technology makes us vulnerable; domino effect when one system goes out
Poorer countries are less equipped to deal with natural disasters and thus sustain more fatalities
PCP: Canada’s emergency management
o Response: immediately after emergency
o Recovery: ”back to normal
o Mitigation: reduce risk
o Preparedness: proactive plans for disasters
Chapter 2
Energy sources that make Earth an active body:
o Earth’s energy: release of energy causes continents to slide creating
mountains/plateaus
o Gravity: force of attraction; mass of earth affects ice/rock causing avalanches/landslides

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Description
Chapter 1 Not responsible for Population Growth (pg 14-16) What is a Natural Disaster?  A natural disaster is a natural occurrence in which a large amount of energy is released in a short amount of time, and causes loss of life (human or otherwise) or damage to property/economic losses  Natural disasters are often triggered when society ignores hazardous conditions in nature  Deadliest natural hazards are hurricanes and earthquakes (Table 1.2) o Others: floods (cause landslides), volcanic eruptions (landslides)  Measuring hazards o Disaster frequency: number of occurrences in a given length of time o Return period: length of time between similar events (inverse of frequency) o Magnitude: amount of energy fuelling a natural event  Figure 1.1 graph o Smaller energy releases all the time, bigger energy releases…  Figure 1.2 o Geological disasters: earthquakes, volcanoes, mass movements o Weather disasters: heat waves, drought, wildfires flood, storms – cause of most Canadian natural disasters - drought o Changing weather patterns may increase the frequency of natural disasters  Table 1.3  More densely populated places have more fatalities in a natural disaster than less populated  Vulnerability: likelihood that a community will suffer, in terms of fatalities and physical damage  Risk: product of vulnerability and hazard; risk = vulnerability X hazard  Our dependence on technology makes us vulnerable; domino effect when one system goes out  Poorer countries are less equipped to deal with natural disasters and thus sustain more fatalities  PCP: Canada’s emergency management o Response: immediately after emergency o Recovery: ”back to normal” o Mitigation: reduce risk o Preparedness: proactive plans for disasters Chapter 2  Energy sources that make Earth an active body: o Earth’s energy: release of energy causes continents to slide – creating mountains/plateaus o Gravity: force of attraction; mass of earth affects ice/rock causing avalanches/landslides o Solar energy: hydrological cycle is started by the suns energy that reaches earth and then evaporates taking water into the atmosphere. Rain and snow is pulled down by gravity  Gravity plus sun makes erosion, that’s deposited into oceans  Solar energy is stored in plant tissue and released as fire o The impact of extraterrestrial bodies: asteroids/comets  Kant proposed the solar system was formed by the growth of the Sun and planets through collisions of matter within a rotating cloud of gas and dust. o Gravity strengthened particle attraction. Dense metals were on the inside, less dense rocks/ice were on the outside o The sun is mostly made up of hydrogen and helium; when hydrogen atoms combine into helium (nuclear fission) the excess energy produced is solar energy  Two classes of meteorites: o Stony – contain chondrules (droplets from the solar nebula; most primitive material in the solar system) o Iron rich – more evolved  Radioactive isotopes measured the solar system to be 4.57 billion years old. Earth is approximately 4.5 billion years  Planet formation created a lot of heat that transformed the planet. Earth was transformed by: impact energy, gravitational energy, differentiation into layers, and decay of radioactive elements  Table 2.3 o 99.97% sunlight energy on Earth’s surface o 0.025% Internal energy o 0.0017% Tidal Energy  Figure 2.25: 30% of light that comes into the atmosphere is reflected  Earth’s layering is differentiated into: o Density layers:  Inner core – dense, solid iron  Outer core – dense, liquid iron. Convection currents in the outer core create earth`s magnetic field  Mantle – rocky, most of earth’s volume and mass  Crust – less dense. Continents, oceans  Atmosphere – least dense o Strength layers: temperature/pressure decrease from the core to the s
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