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HTST 333 (1)

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HTST 333
Dawn Miller

History 333Age of Totalitarianism DefinitionAuthoritarianismUSSRStalinTsarist RussiaNicholas II1905 RevoltWorld War I1917 Revolution March 1917Bolshevik Revolution October 1917LeninCivil War 191890Reds vs WhitesWar CommunismNew Economic PolicyTrotsky vs StalinStalinGeorgiaParanoidConspiraciesStalinismPolitburo Secretary GeneralLenins Last TestamentSocialism in one country3 DictatorsAll aimed for Totalitarian regimes 2 came close one came less close Totalitarianismdefine it first then case studies of itSometimes it gets used for any dictatorshipused looselywhereas it is a specific type of regime Understand how and why they came to power and how they stayed in power Each had very long rules The following in yearsHitler12Mussolini21Stalin26 How and why they fell from power Totalitarianism requires certain conditions it is not universal All the exams are essay examsGet 4 questions write on one of them75 minutesNo class after exam5 page research papertake home final If you miss a class the best thing to do is borrow notes from another student Class is not curved Characteristics of a totalitarian regime Leader with extraordinary powers Exclusive ideology Single mass partyUse of secret policeterror and intimidationA monopoly on the communications mediaA determination to change the basic values of societythis is where everyone lackedDictatorships wish to control public life not necessarily what goes on in the private life however Stlain Hitler and Mussolini Stalin nd Hitlercame closer but even with them there was some discontent There has been no such thing in history as totalitarian regime as none have completely changed the basic values of society The Regime and the leader become linkedcant talking about Nazi Germany without knowing Hitler A very personal regime Leaders are not restrained by consitutions on ideology because they dictate the ideology Can make major decisions without consultation Lots of collegues ministers etc but they are kept in competition with each other so to not threaten the title of Hitler PaternalistPeople are considered to irrational or ignorant to decide what is best for themselves so the leaders feel that they are needed to guide the nationAll of these regimes held elections for some part of their ruleNo secret ballotOne party elections Attempt to control all aspect of lifepublic and private life Didnt happen before the th20 Century thBy the 20 Century even in Russia there was no country too remote to escape Stalin This was not true under the Tsarist systemsome villages were too remote they didnt cause any problems so they were pretty much left alone Authoritarian regimesa lot of dictators fall under this title but they dont make a concerted effort to interfere beyond politicsoften constrainted by custom or religion Usually lack the zeal to change private life As long as youre not actively opposing the regime you can do whatever you want in your private life InterwarLOTS of political upheavalpolitical vacuums disappointment and resentment Germany and Italy openings for new political parties serious economic problemsfor Victors and LosersIt all begins in the Soviet Unionin Tsarist Russia The Tsar combined an unchalleneged head of state and head of government Not devine thlike Japanese emperor Increasingly authroitairn government through the 19 century 1880s Assassination attempts increased the powers Need for a strong centralized government The masses dont know any different A general acceptance of the government No local government until 1864Serfs in Russia were not liberated until 1861Starting to industrializeBackward CountryTsar had a huge beurocracy to rule and complete control over the press censorship and a secret police to keep tabs on the Tsars enemies Tsars secret police were nothing compared to Stalins The chuch also ordained the Tsar Absolutely monarchylike the Tasar of Russiano one except God should try to remove the leader and going against the Tsar is the same as going against God Doesnt mean there is no opposition Radical people with some education read Marxor travel to the rest of Euriope and realize that Russia is pretty backward Other ocuntries have a say in what goes on Very few avenues to express opposition from the inside really only radical and violent opposition is viableNo democratic route is openedRevolution is the only answerMany come to the conclusion that Marxism is the answerit is comforting element of determinismthe inevitable fall of capitalism it will happen you just have to hang in there long enoughWorkers revolt to create a workers paradiseGolden age of perfect socialismLots of educated Russians said Marxism sounds good They dont have much to lose they arent members of the aristocracy they are never going to rise up to that either Revolutionary activity is not allowed by the Tsar Exiled out of Russia or shipped to remote areas of Russia as punishment1905 Russian RevoltBloody Sunday Russia was defeated in the RussoJapanese Wara disgrace and a surprise Economic problems poor wages bad working conditions Peasants are unhappythey cannot afford to buy the land they were working on A peititon to the Tsarasking for a living wage and basic civil rights Troops were sent in 200 killed 200 injured Undermined the Tsars position as the father of the people
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