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Lecture

HTST489 - Sept 16 - Human Intelligence, Geospatial Intel/Maps, Communications Intelligence

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Department
History
Course
HTST 489
Professor
John Ferris
Semester
Fall

Description
HTST489 Sept 16 Human sources of intelligence: No matter the human source, questioning or interrogation is necessary to get as much info as possible, even from the willing. If you're dealing with an unwilling one, it takes different forms. Torture, physical sanctions. These are problematic as we have pronounced attitudes towards it. The majority see torture as wrong, and so we're also inclined to think that torture doesn't work. “We don't use torture because it's a bad source, it will give you bad results”. The dilemma is that its like any other source – sometimes it gives good results, sometimes bad. There are strengths and limits. We don't use torture even though it might work because we find it morally unacceptable. The earliest record we have of a battle is one fought 1224 BC – Egyptians capture hittite scouts, use violence to get information. On the one hand: quick way to get information using torture. Dilemma is that at a certain point people will say anything to stop the torture, easy to get bad information this way. Historically, if you look at how information is collected by forces collecting intelligence abroad, physical sanctions have been used. Recently we have developed reluctance due to ethical reasons. Torture is, objectively though, a source of information, good and bad. Torture is most valuable when you need to know something immediately – can get material through interrogation if you have a few months to play around with. Hard to know how sophisticated it was 5- 600 years ago, not easy to find a case where you can trace interrogation without physical sanctions and what it acquired. Can play any number of games: • two interrogators do “good cop bad cop” - spill to the friendly one • knowing more than the interrogee knows you know, allow them to answer a lot of questions and get caught in a lie “how is it you're telling me x instead of y?” • if you know a great deal about their background, convincing the interogee that you already know everything so you may as well talk • english techniques of interrogating German POW's (also involved physical sanctions) – act like a german officer, bark out commands like they would, try to use their military discipline against them. German officers said to americans they'd say “yeah, those other guys fucked up and here you are”, different technique with the english soldiers. Alot of information can be gained from interrogation with no violence – a well prepared interrogator can trap that person if they're trying to lie. With counterintelligence, trying to find an agent within your system, the dilemma is it takes awhile to make it work. Need lots and lots of background information. Can be interactive – share transcript of interrogation one day with others who come up with other issues to press. Professional interrogator will read up a lot about you, people you know and are linked to, etc. The german atomic bomb program didn't work because the british rounded up the german physicists. Ancient modes of collection. Up to 1000 years ago, human sources were the only ones there are. Around 1000 years ago, more sources started to appear. Nowadays, human sources are not rated #1. The best source you can get is a person in the paper or digital flow of another organization, high enough up they can comment on what is meant by material, and can get it to you life – incredibly rare. Polygraphs are still used, despite being questionable. Next source: Geospatial Intelligence/Maps Maps are complicated in the sense that what they do is provide a means to represent to Party D all sorts of data collected by PartiesAover a period of time. Representing data collected by hundred or thousands. 800-9000 BCE forward is when they began to be used. Several pieces of papyrus, small scale drawing of big piece of terrain – identify notable geographic locales and topographic features, try to keep it scaled. Other maps are entirely verbal and written out – second form more common til the 1500's. Providing a route map, intended often for sea travel. “Start out in tyre, sail for 5 days, wind condition will be _____, water colour will be green, when you see a volcano ahead turn left”. These times of route maps don't allow you to see things to scale, but allow you to follow a means to get somewhere. Early modern mariner navigation used rutters – these modes of representing data are useful for merchants. If you don't have them, it's hard to travel long distances. If you do, you can use them for planning campaigns. Where maps take on power and make cartography the first mathematized mode of representing data for strategic planning – when you represent angles of travel. The compass leads to compass markings, allowing one to be very precise with maps, determine angles from point a to b. Scale representations become increasingly accurate. In the 1800s, first in Portugal and Spain, what you find is the creation of maps providing detailed accounts of topography, hydrography for every known continent. The chinese government paid a great deal of attention to visiting catholics because they could teach them more detailed modes of recording time and distance, and the chinese government adopts western modes of representing geospatial areas. 500 eyars ago becomes possible for states to sit down and see the state at a single glimpse. Much easier to understand intelligence strategically, as a source that emerges around the 1500s, cartography is more important that cryptography. Maps continue to be important intelligence source til modern era. Cartography becomes important subordinate branch of statemanship. Military planning affected by using maps, finding choke points in defenses, seeing means and avenues to approach an enemy. Can find world strategy using maps – possible for a government to plan to project power to the opposite side of the world, or in the new world. Maps have an important role in the formulation of strategy, show how a source can lapse in importance over time. Source: Communications Intelligence Material acquired by intercepting and processing form of communication. Intercepting encoded morse code diplomatic telegram in the 1890s, listening to a cellphone in the present day, reading mail, reading email. On the one hand, has existed in theory as far back as we can go in terms of gov. Documents. The wa
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