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HTST 489
John Ferris

HTST489 Nov 08 Conference at U of C on Saturday the 19 on cyber espionage – contact Ferris for details, if interested. For years, Phillip II has been building up resources to attack England. Concentrates new construction with attempts to gather up naval strength. Some of the navy isn't well suited to this, though. Have to maintain fleet capable of fighting in the Med and the WesternAtlantic – the latter which features replacement of oars with sails. By 1587-88, Phillip has gathered a fleet large enough to launch a major attack against England. Not a fleet ever tested in battle. Some of the ships are new, command is complicated. Leading Spanish naval figure dies midway through gathering up the fleet, and Phillip is forced to hand control to an elite with no experience. Has ability in administrative terms, and takes constant advice from his captains and admirals. From english perspective, fact that the Spanish are amassing this fleet is apparent almost as soon as the Spanish start doing it. Cannot hide such a large fleet. So English have great deal of warning, use this knowledge to expand and change their fleet. General recognition that Spanish are building a fleet, and English must do something to deal with it. Doesn't produce major factionalization, but there is an upper level to English naval resources – can't build a fleet as numerically big as the Spanish fleet. Not clear whether building a larger fleet might've done them much good anyways. English draw correct general conclusions. Try to match fleet, try to gather info/intel on where the fleet will go. Walsingham acquires material from italian states with diplomatic relations with spain. Because these italian states steal some planning documents, it's possible to get some decent sense of the scale of the effort of what will be the SpanishArmada. But: problem the english can't solve is that they can't get a sense of where the fleet is going to go. Technically possible to be used to launch a campaign in the Med, or against another country – but english don't need to know where it's going for sure, just have to know the capability is great enough that they can't risk not responding. Decision on english part to assess this info based only on capabilities is a natural one. Worse case is Spanish send the whole armada against you.About to see a naval battle of a kind that's never happened before. SpanishArmada engagement with the english is a battle using ships and weapons that'd never been used in combat before.At Battle of Leponto, Spanish beat the Turks as they've turned to use of more artillery power, which the Turks hadn't. Same dilemma about to confront english and spanish- no real idea how to use large sailing vessels armed with artillery – guesswork. English and spanish have many captains experienced in single ship engagements. But if the issue is how to get a fleet to work, neither side has a clear idea of what's going to happen. English have taken technical step which pushes them past anything the Spanish can handle. English approach to deploying artillery, which later becomes the standard. Spanish artillery deployment – have to send gunners over the side of the ship to reload, occurs in an environment where you don't have to worry about a high level of enemy firepower coming down on you, surprisingly. English use system whereby every artillery piece has gunmouth outside of vessel, artillery piece recoils, system of webbing or ropes allows gun to move back 10 feet or so, reload it in the ship, point the muzzle out again and fire once more. English advantage over the Spanish. Spanish don't foresee this happening. Early July 1588,Armada is concentrated on Spanish coasts, be
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