1640-60, English Civil War
Three conflicts, most action in the first. Dates are just to keep you on track, broad strokes are all that's
King of Scotland becomes James I when Elizabeth dies, then his son Charles I takes over in 1625.
War is parliament vs. The king. Summoned and dismissed at the will of the king, advisory body, but
tradition has granted parliament to raise most taxes. King needs Parliament ot fund most actions and
wars. They fail to get around.
Charles I marries Henriette Maria, a French Catholic. Parliament not happy. Charles favours elaborate
Anglicanism that many in the kingdom feel is too close to Catholicism. Wants to impose it on the
realm. Wants money, relies on old customs going back to early middle ages that are really unpopular,
allowing him to raise money without parliament. Ship money – raising money for fleets by playing up a
war scare that allows him to call for this money - most people see it as a scam.
Risk of conflict with Scotland leads to Charles desperately calling in Parliament to get funds –
parliament hasn't been called in 12 years and immediately initiates grievances before anything else will
be done. Charles dismisses Parliament again. Charles takes the army he has, invades Scotland, Charles
loses.Army defeated, Scots move in from the north, take Northern England hostage, demand payment
daily or they'll raise and loot Northern England to get it. Charles has no opportunity to call parliament
again. Even more hostile this time, demand specific favourite be executed – actually get their way.
Charles gives minor concessions that doesn't lower tensions. Charles marches into parliament and
demands Five most anti-royalist members of parliament turn themselves over to arrest – they've been
warned and are in hiding. Speaker of the House politely tells Charles to bunk off.
Charles raises royal standard in Oxford – royalists and parliamentarians or cavaliers and “roundheads”
are at war. Parliament is much more protestant, some fringe austere elements. Civil war.
Oliver Cromwell becomes leading parliamentary general.After early successes for the Royalists,
Parliament pulls ahead and secures victory in the first war. Three years later there's a series of uprisings
against the Parliamentary order but put down – referred to as the second war. Charles has been
imprisoned but refuses to abdicate the Throne. Under what conditions do they return him to the throne?
Army marches on Parliament at idea of Charles being put back on the throne. Demand a trial, and tell
them what result they expect. Charles found guilty of treason and beheaded.
After the trial, parliament runs the show til 1653, but lots of infighting, factionalization. Presbyterians
versus anglicans versus puritans. Cromwell gets fed up, throws them out, marches in with his own
soldiers and takes control as “Lord Protector” - the Protectorate, period where England has no King but
Cromwell styles himself as “ruler for life”. Son forced out by 1659 after Cromwell's death. Everyone
decides to bring back the monarchy, Charles II invited peaceably back into London and takes the
throne, period known as the Restoration.
Intelligence within the Civil War:
Information and communication travels slow. Lack of internal security, hard to find traitors. No
standing army, no tradition of scouts and recon – there are militias, but a lot of early battles were armies blundering into each other. There isn't a real successor to Walsingham, no English intel chief at
this time. Eventually, Parliament becomes known as the group best at spying. Not a lot of use of formal
torture – more interviews and kinder interrogation, as involves the nobility. Ungentlemanly to use the
rack on nobles. Ciphers are used, but inconsistent and primitive. Religion and politics are mixed, but
this is one of the earliest cases where you start to see politics without religion at times.Armies have
spent several days wandering just to find each other – scouting is terrible.
John Wallace at dinner with parliamentarians – Parliamentarians have cipher key they haven't been able
to crack. Wallace cracks it before dinner's done. Employed thereafter as decipherist.
Fifth columnist – people hiding within the cities. Everyone is afraid of infilitration as everyone speaks
the same language, has the same accent mainly, no obvious outward way of detecting someone against
your cause. There's a point where cavaliers actually fight themselves for hours because of a lack of
divide between uniforms and symbols.
Charles brings over Catholic troops from Ireland to help his campaign. “Catholic” troops are actually
English and Scots garrisoned in Ireland, but the spin and propaganda is done so well that everyone