Nov 6 th
Last day: political warfare in the 1500s.
Form of political warfare that you might not think of – the catholic powers efforts to sustain
catholicism in england, effort of english state to control catholicism and convert catholics into
Catholic powers include the Vatican and Spain. From our perspective, for gov to attempt to control or
eliminate a religion seems a bad thing. But in this period of the 1500s, the religion you choose has a
direct political impact. States as a general rule say that people can only practice the religion of the state
itself. Struggle between Spain & The Vatican against the English state.
In middle 1500s, England becomes dominated by people who want to maintain the Anglican faith,
against majority catholic population. Elizabeth attempts to be as tolerant towards individual catholics as
she can while still coaxing them to abandon catholicism and join theAnglican faith. Elizabeth aims to
contain Catholics politically while still allowing some freedom. On top of this is coercion – although
not impossible to attend catholic ceremonies, it becomes more difficult – find people who don't attend
anglican services. Constant monitoring, maintenance of spies between catholics in england to make
sure they can't mount an assasssination attempt/destablize rule. If you enter the anglican union you can
do everything you did as a catholic except you have to break with Rome.
Catholic church and Hapsburg Spain. Train English Catholics in Europe so they can be sent back to
England in secret. Priest holes – secret areas on a property where one can hold Catholic ceremonies.
Hapsburgs want to keep influence among English catholic elite/nobility as they're easier to reach and if
you maintain influence among them, in a deeply patriachical culture you can hope to keep catholicism
afloat in substantial portions of territories.
If Elizabeth is dead, her legitimate heir is Mary Queen of Scots (a catholic), and England could be
brought back into the Catholic fold. Hence the risk of assassination.Atttitudes toward religion are like
attitudes toward politics, one of the few periods before modern times where states try to shape the
ideology of normal people. Historically rare before the 19 century to find governments using their
coercive capabilities to change people's faith.
Seeing an underground secret organization mounted by catholic powers to maintain catholicism in
england – clear as time goes by that in England you see a decrease in support for Catholicism and a rise
inAnglicanism or other Protestant sects. When Elizabeth dies in 1604, catholics remain a large fraction
of the population (though not the majority). When succeeded by a protestant, the last attempt at
assassination is conducted – Guy Fawkes Day! Gain access to the tunnel access beneath the house of
commons and fill it with gunpowder in an attempt to slay the entire english elite. Shaping or
maintaining the loyalties of the elite and the common people, and in the long run Elizabeth's regime
succeeds in its aim.
In the 1580s, the Hapsburgs, with support from the Vatican, seek to use military force to win the
counter reformation. Dilmma the Spanish confront is going against 3 powers at once – in the Netherlands, England (which is neutral in the early 1580s although substantial numbers within the state
support the Dutch), and France. In 1570s there'd been a continuation of a decade old war between
France and Spain.As time wears on, France falls into civil war. Hugenots led by Henri de Lavar.
Another faction centered on the French royal family.And one associated with the guise, the catholic
nobles. Spain can back one faction against another and keep France neutralized. In early and middle
1580s, primarily driven by military power and diplomacy, the Spanish are maintaining a substantial
army in present-day Belgium. In order to supply this army, the Spanish are confronting complex
logistical problems. In order to supply those in Belgium, the Spaniards have to move men from Spain
to Italy, march them through theAlps to Germany, then up the Rhine into the Netherlands. The Turks
are a problem, as always, have to deal with them before all else. Prolonged war in netherlands at the
end of a costly supply line. Dutch build reasonably effective force, war their ends up hinging on seiging
walled cities – slow work.
Spain has to think of how to deal with the English in the face of all this. Spain slowly turns toward
covert actions. In 1584, the leader of the Dutch resistance, William the Silent, is assassinated by a
Catholic. Doesn't shatter the stability of the Dutch state, but does weaken it – likely masterminded by
the Spanish. Around this time, the Spanish ambassador in London is involved with a plot w