October 4 th
Security Services & Political Warfare
Sec Services – bodyguards, secret police, etc.
Over the past several hundred years, one did not find specialist individuals who dealt only with
intelligence collection or security and warfare. Was handled as normal part of job of decision maker. If
you go back to Roman empire, frontier officials would handle diplomacy, warfare, etc. Nothing like a
distinct security service. Closest thing you'd find hundred of years ago would be a bodyguard. In
modern period, these are bureaucratized.
Secret threats and conspiracies – collecting information to deal with it.
Earliest meaningful conspiracy – 3000 years ago, Harem conspiracy during reign of Ramses III –
number of his wives and associates conspire to kill him. Mortally wounded, but is able to first take
them to trial.
Assassination and conspiracy were normal parts of politics. What seems to be abnormal in politics –
conspiracy, treachery, in historical terms, is normal. Things we take for granted like a loyal opposition,
where people in your country will not conspire with governments abroad, were rare.
Past few centuries, specialist security apparati. Napoleon's secret police is more advanced than normal
police force. Looking at rise of bureaucratized intelligence, earliest we can see records of intelligence,
there's overlap between external intel and security intel. In practical terms, they're nearly identical.
Who are your foreign enemies going to look for as allies? People in your country who will turn against
you, and vice versa. Systems thus have to work together. Fracis Walzingham (definitely mispelled).
Runs his own human intelligence network – traitors at home cooperating with govs abroad. Link
between internal traitors and external governments.
Targets of these are the Elite. 95% of population are irrelevant politically, the ones in security are thus
the elite. Looking at organizations in history that look into ideological views of normal people, usually
comes down to religious groups trying to root out heretics – otherwise who cares what the common
In middle 19 c, things change, becomes more familiar to modern day. Civil force professionalized that
maintains law and order and is responsible to judicial system. Nationalizing and bureaucratizing forces
that maintain civil order. In middle 19 c, few countries have anything like a security service. Borrow
normal policeman to solve the problem instead. From 19 c, definition of security threat no longer
focuses just on elite, but anyone interested in mass or secret conspiracy to change the political order.
Normal people become targets. Terrorism. Historically, key drivers for intelligence service is terrorism.
Drives governments to come up with organizations to take care of it. Sometimes may have group of
people with legitimate aims (though pursuing revolutionary changes) overlapping with people
performing political violence or working with a government abroad.American Communist party is
linked to soviet intel collection and subversion – soviets use all communist parties abroad. On the other
hand – what is the single largest group of people who oppose racial segregation in the united states at
the time? TheAmerican Communist party. Mass politics and the politics of social change link issues