KNES 372 Lecture 17: 372 32Premium
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Routes of Transmission
• One-to-one contact between individuals: direct, indirect, droplet. Non-contact: airborne, vehicle, vector
• Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI): most common infection in athletes
• Incidence = average adult 1-6 per year (Athlete and non-athlete)
• Pathogen = Majority are VIRAL (E.g., Rhinovirus, coranovirus) – Person to person; direct and indirect contact
• Symptoms = sore throat, fatigue, nasal congestion, mildly elevate temperature, dry cough.
• Course = 7-10 days
• Treatment = supportive (fluids/pain control), ↓ training (faster recovery)
• Prevention = gloves, hand washing
• NECK CHECK =
o Symptoms above the neck (nasal congestion, runny nose, sore throat) → Can play – Proceed cautiously
o Symptoms below the neck (vomiting, diarrhea, fever, myalgia) → stop activity … rest!
o Bacterial infection (sinusitis, pharyngitis) → Athlete should be afebrile and on antibiotics for at least 24
hrs before returning to sport
• Infectious Mononucleosis: COMMON (90% of adults exposed by age 30).
• Pathogenesis = viral illness of the lymphoreticular system (Epstein-Barr virus). Spread through saliva (“Kissing
disease”). Has a 30-50-day incubation period
• Symptoms/signs = fatigue, sore throat, fever, swollen lymph nodes (neck, armpits), swollen tonsils, skin rash,
headache. Duration = 4-8 weeks
• Diagnosis = clinical findings, lab data (blood testing & monospot test is Positive at one week of symptoms)
• Treatment = rest, eat healthy, fluids, Tylenol/Advil for sore throat and headache, NO ANTI-VIRALS
• Complications = Myocarditis, prolonged fatigue, hepatitis, meningitis/encephalitis, SPLENIC ENLARGEMENT
(occur in >50% of cases), SPLENIC RUPTURE (occurs in 0.1-0.2% of IM patients), severe complications <5%
• Acute symptoms = 5-15 days = Usual recovery 4-6 weeks from diagnosis BUT may take >12 weeks
• Athletes at same risk of contracting IM as non-athletes
• Overtraining = ↓immunity may ↑risk and may take 3-6months to reach pre-illness function
• RTS = Must document normal spleen size (Ultrasound) due to risk of splenic rupture and possible death.
• Gradually return to activity but remember everyone is different!
• Influenza: NOT the common cold!!!! • Acute respiratory illness caused by Influenza A or B viruses
• Highly contagious – the virus is spread quickly and easily via droplets. It is especially common during winter
season (October to March)
• Symptoms = 1-4 day incubation period, fever, dry cough, muscle aches, headache, weakness, sore throat,
rhinorrhea. Symptoms improvement occurs between days 3 and 7, with cough and fatigue lasting days longer.
• Complications = dehydration, pneumonia, bronchitis, myositis, death
o Annual rate of influenza related deaths is 1.4-16.7 deaths per 100,000 persons
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