Chapter 9.docx

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University of Calgary
Management Information Systems
MGIS 317
Ronald Schlenker

Chapter 9: motivation What is motivation? This is the internal and external factors that stimulate people to take actions that lead to achieving a goal. This basically means the desire or workers to see a job done quickly and well. Unmotivated staff will be reluctant to perform effectively and well done jobs. Content theories of motivation Taylor and scientific management (1856-1917) The techniques he used – of establishing an idea or hypothesis, studying and recording performance at work, altering working methods and re-recording performance – are still used today. This could be ways to improve output per worker or productivity following Taylor’s theory: - Select workers to perform a task - Observe them performing the task and note the key elements of it - Record the time taken to do each part of the task - Identify the quickest method recorded - Train all workers in the quickest method and do not allow them to make any changes to it - Supervise workers to ensure that this best way is being carried out and time them to check that the set time is not being exceeded - Pay workers on the basis of results Mayo and the human relations theories (1880-1949) Elton Mayo is best known for his “Hawthorne effect conclusions”. His work was initially based on the assumption that working conditions – lighting, heating, rest periods and so on – had a significant effect on workers´ productivity. The Hawthorne effect is: - Changing in working conditions and financial rewards have little or no effect on productivity - When management consult with workers and take an interest in their work, then motivation is improved - Working in teams and developing a team spirit can improve productivity - When some control over their own working lives is given to workers, such as deciding when to take breaks, there is a positive motivational effect - Groups can establish their own targets or norms and these can be greatly influenced by the informal leaders of the group. Maslow and the hierarchy of human needs (1908-1970) He was concerned with trying to identify and classify the main needs that people have. He them formed the hierarchy of needs (starting from bottom to top). Physical needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization. The hierarchy was interpreted by Maslow as it follows: - Individuals´ needs start on the lowest level - Once one level of need has been satisfied, humans will strive to achieve the next level - Self-actualization, or self-fulfillment, is not reached by many people, but everyone is capable of reaching their potential - Once a need is satisfied, it will no longer motivate individuals to action – thus, when material needs have been satisfied, the offer of more money will not increase productivity - Reversion is possible. Herzberg and the two factor theory (1923-2000) His intention was to discover: - Those factors that led to them having very good feelings about their jobs - Those factors that led to them having very negative feelings about their jobs His conclusions were that: - Job satisfaction resulted from five main factors – achievement, recognition for achievement, the work itself, responsibility and advancement - Job dissatisfaction resulted from five main factors too – company policy and administration, supervision, salary, relationship with others and working conditions. There are three main features of job enrichment and, if these were adopted, then the motivators would be available for all workers to benefit from: Complete units of work: typical mass production methods leave workers to assemble one small part of the finished product. This is not rewarding, can be boring and repetitive and prevents the worker from appreciating the importance of what they are doing as part of the overall production system. F
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