MKTG 483 NOTES
Learning and Memory
SEPT 20, 2012
Learning: linking previous knowledge and experience with present situation. It's a
process because it keeps changing.
Two schools of learning:
Behavioural learning (inputs and outputs of learning. The 'blackbox' because it concerns
itself with how learning takes place. How a certain stimulus leads to a certain response.
Cognitive learning: concerned with the internal world, what's happening with the
individual. How does memory work? Cognitive processes?
Behavioural learning theories:
Classic conditioning: people learn passively. Every organism (human, animal) is a
passive entity that you can teach through repetition. Pavlov's dogs: he was a
physiologist who discovered that dogs learned through association.
unconditioned stimulus (dried meat powder)--> unconditioned response (salivation). US
is a stimulus who results in the UR. Eventually, the bell alone was enough to
make the dogs salivate.
When does conditioning work well? If it's more of a physiological reaction. Forward
conditioning (the CS precedes US). Bell before spraying the meat.
Generalization of the stimulus: sounds that sounded like the conditional stimulus result
in the same response. The dogs generalized the same response.
Instrumental conditioning: learning through feedback, learning from behaviours that give
positive outcomes. Punishment: behaviour that leads to negative outcomes (i.e.
stealing). Extinction: positive reinforcement is not there anymore- every time you
wear chains, somebody gives you a compliment. All of a sudden, not wearing
that chain = no compliments. Are we encouraging mediocrity with positive
Cognitive learning theories - conditions which need to be there:
Observational learning: learn by what happens to others.
attention: people have to pay attention to learn
retention: they must retain the memoir
production processes: they must be able to perform the behaviour
motivation: thy'll use this knowledge Memory: acquiring, storing info
sensory memory: if you don't pay attention to it, it is lost. if you attend to the memory, it
transfers to your short-term memory (your working memory). STM is when you interpret
information that you receive against what you already know, the meaning, etc. It is
limited and you can only have so much of it. 3-4 pieces of info that we can process at
the same time. Long term memory: tired almost permanently. autobiographical is about
ourselves, our past, semantic is about memories unrelated to ourselves (i.e. like a dog).
Short term memory: we chunk information- larger bits of information- i.e. putting
hyphens in large numbers or long words…
Enhancing memory: rehearsal: repeating it silently, actively trying to make sense of info
in an exam prep. Recirculation: knowing the names of stores around your house
because you've seen them over and over. Elaboration: step further than rehearsal,
process it at deeper levels.
Retrieval: trying to remember something
In long term memory, semantic network -- a bunch of related concepts stored together
in a network. IE trying to remember Vail, Switzerland- thinking about concepts of
expensive, long lines, etc resulted through strong associations. Weaker associations =
busses taking you to lifts. Does not generate other concepts. For concepts, there are a
bunch of networks that are related. Information = a series of semantic networks
Retrieval: decay: links may disappear between concepts. interference: list of grocery
items- you are trying to memorize the twenty words. When at the store, you cannot
remember some of them because the ones you already remembered interfere with the
other missing words. Both decay and interference influence primary: we tend to
remember the first piece and last piece of information better. People remember the first
ad better than the ones in the middle because there is no interference with the other
ads. Recency: you remember breakfast from today better than breakfast from
we retrieve info more easily when it's salient (bright, big, unusual); you remember
unusual ads more than regular ones. Prototypical= when you think of the
category of product, the brand comes up.
Good moods help memory. Congruence: people remember things when they good/bad
moods. Instrumental conditioning: people learn through trial and error. They learn what is good
SEPT 25, 2012
Instincts: fight or flight, the argument is that there aren't set lists of instincts
Sociobiology: more about survival, survival of offspring
Drive theory: motivation to keep equilibrium
Incentive theory: not internal, no state to push you to act in a certain way, pulls you to
act a certain way.
Expectancy theory: people are concerned about the likelihood of an outcome of a
behaviour. If likelihood is low or bad, the motivation will not be there.
Maslow's hierarchy of needs: you must fulfill the bottom needs first before the ones
towards the top of the pyramid.
SEPT 27, 2012
People think that the "fundamental emotions" are not exhaustive enough. Emotions are
more complicated that simple categories.
Cannon-Bard theory: there is no room for cognitive thought. Something happens and
we react to it emotionally and physiologically at the same time. You shake and feel fear
at the same time.
Mixed emotions- we can experience them but as long as they're not very intense.
How does affect influence evaluation.
People interviewed on a sunny day are happier than those interviewed on a rainy day.
You don't feel 'bad' when you're choosing between two utilitarian options, just between
two hedonic ones (i.e. sports car brands)
Emotional labour- creating emotions that you don't feel.
Emotional contagion - how you feel will affect others' emotions. OCT 3, 2012
The culture and media will shape the 'ideal.'
OCT 9, 2012
Id: part of the psyche that wants to gratify, seek pleasure and avoid pain. No regard to
say consequences. The ego finds symbolism in products.
Motivational research: a lot of behaviour is latent- people don't know why they buy
certain things. However, it's not something that many accept at face value. However,
MR is very limited in terms of sampling
Ego: id-related with a message more towards the superego.
Trait theory: quantitative measurements of personality traits.
Idiocentrics: consume regardless of what other thinks. Allocentrics are more group
oriented. This theory is not very reliable. People are not necessarily consistent in how
they behave in certain situations.
OCT 11, 2012
just because a consumer likes your ad, doesn't mean they'll like the product.
it's more complex than just 'i like' or 'i don't like' - three components
cognition (beliefs, evaluate the attributes) --> affect (conclusion, i like it or i don't,
feelings) --> behaviour (acting on it)
i.e. choosing a university
attitudes driven mainly by our feelings: buying a bottle of wine (you don't always know
everything about the wine.
High involvement = buying a digital camera (high cognitive processes)
Low involvement: soft drink, don't really think about bar
Attitudes facilitate behaviour- i.e. if you're scare of something you'll avoid it. Marketers
want to know how they can change attitudes. utilitarian function: i only like something because it leads to something positive for me
value-expressive function: it expresses something about me so i like it.
ego-defensive function: protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings- i.e.
avoiding information that will say you're not so good at what you do, so you protect
yourself from that feeling
knowledge function: attitudes help structure our world, creates order. having attitudes
will help simplify things. there are some adaptive functions
classical conditioning: pavlov's dogs. products repeatedly paired with something that
you already have a positive attitude towards, the idea is that it becomes a conditioned
stimulus, leading to a conditioned response.
lowest level of involvement: forming an attitude = compliance. to adopt something
because it gives us a positive reward, avoids negative outcomes. these attitudes are
easy to change
mid-level: forming an attitude to conform to another person's requests, wanting to be
highest-level: internalizing our attitudes- something that is very important to us.
something that is very stable. marketers look to develop products with positive attitudes
that can be internalized.
self-perception theory: we observe our own behaviour and make conclusions based on
that. Observation of own behaviour.
foot in door technique: they're more likely to accept your larger offer if you start off
low ball technique: ethical issues attached to this
door-in-the-face: ask for something huge before asking for something small
social judgment theory: if you give me information outside of my latitude for acceptance
balance theory: considers a triad of relationships. person, attitude object, another object
or person. there are relationships and we want to maintain harmony in these
relationships. If i have a positive relationship with fair trade and someone was selling
fair trade coffee, to maintain harmony, i have to like the fair trade coffee.
unbalanced triad: alex has to do something because she doesn't like guys who