Jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of body tissues, results from an alteration in normal
bilirubin metabolism or flow of bile into the hepatic or biliary duct systems.
The three types of jaundice are hemolytic, hepatocellular, and obstructive.
o Hemolytic (prehepatic) jaundice is due to an increased breakdown of red blood
cells (RBCs), which produces an increased amount of unconjugated bilirubin in
o Hepatocellular (hepatic) jaundice results from the liver’s altered ability to take up
bilirubin from the blood or to conjugate or excrete it.
o Obstructive (posthepatic) jaundice is due to decreased or obstructed flow of bile
through the liver or biliary duct system.
Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of
hepatitis. The types of viral hepatitis are A, B, C, D, E, and G.
o HAV is an RNA virus that is transmitted through the fecal-oral route.
o The mode of transmission of HAV is mainly transmitted by ingestion of food or
liquid infected with the virus and rarely parenteral.
o HBV is a DNA virus that is transmitted perinatally by mothers infected with
HBV; percutaneously (e.g., IV drug use); or horizontally by mucosal exposure to
infectious blood, blood products, or other body fluids.
o HBV is a complex structure with three distinct antigens: the surface antigen
(HBsAg), the core antigen (HBcAg), and the e antigen (HBeAg).
o Approximately 6% of those infected when older than age 5 develop chronic HBV.
o HCV is an RNA virus that is primarily transmitted percutaneously.
o The most common mode of HCV transmission is the sharing of contaminated
needles and paraphernalia among IV drug users.
o There are 6 genotypes and more than 50 subtypes of HCV.
Hepatitis D, E, G
o Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is an RNA virus that cannot survive on its own. It
requires HBV to replicate.
o Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an RNA virus that is transmitted by the fecal-oral
o Hepatitis G virus (HGV) is a sexually transmitted virus. HGV c