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Chapter 27.docx

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NURS 287
Rick Nilson

Chapter 27:  Problems of the upper respiratory tract include disorders of the nose, pharynx, adenoids, tonsils, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea.  A deviated septum is a deflection of the normally straight nasal septum that is most commonly caused by trauma to the nose or congenital disproportion.  Rhinoplasty, the surgical reconstruction of the nose, is performed for cosmetic reasons or to improve airway function when trauma or developmental deformities result in nasal obstruction.  Allergic rhinitis is the reaction of the nasal mucosa to a specific allergen and is classified as either intermittent or persistent. o Intermittent means that the symptoms are present less than 4 days a week or less than 4 weeks per year. o Persistent means that the symptoms are present more than 4 days a week and for more than 4 weeks per year. o The most important step in managing allergic rhinitis involves identifying and avoiding triggers of allergic reactions.  Acute viral rhinitis (also known as the common cold or acute coryza): o Is caused by an adenovirus that invades the upper respiratory tract and often accompanies an acute upper respiratory infection. o Rest, fluids, proper diet, antipyretics, and analgesics are the recommended management of acute viral rhinitis.  In contrast to acute viral rhinitis, the onset of influenza is typically abrupt with systemic symptoms of cough, fever, and myalgia often accompanied by a headache and sore throat. o To combat the likelihood of developing influenza, there are two types of flu vaccines available: inactivated and live, attenuated. o The nurse should advocate the use of inactivated influenza vaccination in all patients greater than 50 years of age or who are at high risk during routine office visits or, if hospitalized, at the time of discharge.  Chronic and acute sinusitis develop when the ostia (exit) from the sinuses is narrowed or blocked by inflammation or hypertrophy (swelling) of the mucosa. Chronic sinusitis lasts
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