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Lecture 4

OPMA 407 Lecture 4: Lecture 4

by OneClass453710 , Summer 2018
2 Pages
90 Views
Summer 2018

Department
Operations Management
Course Code
OPMA 407
Professor
David Roberts
Lecture
4

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Budgeting, Costs
Material Review Question #1
Estimates:
Top Down- money is handed down to lower levels (easier to aggregate budget)
Advantage: certainty in amount, senior management approval
Disadvantage: lower level conflict, not enough
Bottom Up-
Advantage: lower level has a better idea of costs, active stakeholder.
Disadvantages: lack of senior management support, lacks of "big picture"
Material Review Question #2
Indirect Costs
An indirect cost is a cost that cannot be directly traced back to the production of an output. For
accounting purposes, two rules of thumb are often used when classifying a cost as direct or
indirect. In order to fall into the direct cost category, the cost must be physically observable (it
can be seen and measured when an output is made) and it must be economically feasible to
track the cost during production of each output. If this is not true, then the cost will usually be
captured in bulk as an indirect cost and allocated back to the units of output that were created
during a fixed period of time (accounting period, for example). Examples of indirect costs that a
project manager should consider include:
Sales expense
General administration
Contingency- 3 level, how much certainty there is, if you're very certain about it, It's about 5% to
10%
Spoilage
Waste
Turnover/ training
Material Review Question #6 (include some numbers, or a diagram on exam!!)
Learning curves (curve downwards)
You get faster as volume doubles
There is a cliché that “practice makes perfect.” In the basic learning curve, each time the
number of repetitions for a task is doubled, a predictable percentage of improvement in
productivity will be observed. If 100 hours were required to complete task “A” on the first
cycle, a 90% learning curve would mean that only 90 hours would be necessary on the
second cycle. On the fourth cycle, only 81 hours would be needed to complete that
repetition of task “A.”
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Description
Budgeting, Costs Material Review Question 1 Estimates: Top Down money is handed down to lower levels (easier to aggregate budget) Advantage: certainty in amount, senior management approval Disadvantage: lower level conflict, not enough Bottom Up Advantage: lower level has a better idea of costs, active stakeholder. Disadvantages: lack of senior management support, lacks of big picture Material Review Question 2 Indirect Costs An indirect cost is a cost that cannot be directly traced back to the production of an output. For accounting purposes, two rules of thumb are often used when classifying a cost as direct or indirect. In order to fall into the direct cost category, the cost must be physically observable (it can be seen and measured when an output is made) and it must be economically feasible to track the cost during production of each output. If this is not true, then the cost will usually be captured in bulk as an indirect cost and allocated back to the units of output that were created during a fixed period of time (accounting period, for example). Examples of indirect costs that a project manager should consider include: Sales expense General administration Contingency 3 level, how much certainty there is, if youre very certain about it, Its about 5 to 10 Spoilage Waste Turnover training Material Review Question 6 (include some numbers, or a diagram on exam!!) Learning curves (curve downwards) You get faster as volume doubles There is a clich that practice makes perfect. In the basic learning curve, each time the number of repetitions for a task is doubled, a predictable percentage of improvement in productivity will be observed. If 100 hours were required to complete task A on the first cycle, a 90 learning curve would mean that only 90 hours would be necessary on the second cycle. On the fourth cycle, only 81 hours would be needed to complete that repetition of task A.
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